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Economic race and gander - Essay Example

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Economic race and gander In this paper, I have summarised the chapters 10, 11 and 12 from the book "The economics of women, men and work" sixth edition by Francine D.Balu, Marianne A. Ferber and Anne E. Winkler. The 10th chapter is title as “Changing work roles and the family” which examines trends in marriage which says higher male earnings increase the gains to specialization and hence likelihood of marriage…
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Download file to see previous pages Other concern is whether they can fully rely on or trust their partners. Divorce rates were going up. Religious beliefs and broad social attitude were also among the reasons. The main reason for divorce is financial instability and insecurity of future etc., Unanticipated events, sudden job loss and liberalized state divorce loss were also reasons for increased rate of divorces. The divorce rates stood at 2.2 divorces per thousand population in 1960 and increased to 3.5 to 5.2 divorces per thousand population in 1980. Births to unmarried mothers is also on the raise because of economic independence and social security available to mothers. Co-habitation or living together has been accepted by the society. Individuals who never married co-habit prior to first marriage or after they have been divorced. Co-habitation often ends in marriage or breakup. Co-habitation between gay and lesbian couples are also on the increase. Whether to have children or how many to have is decided on the economic opportunities. The changing economic opportunities affect the fertility decisions. As the women's wage raises the opportunity cost of the time they spend with children also increases. However, the preoccupation with their employment and social activities force them to postpone the pregnancies. The fertility rate at the year 1955 was much higher compared to the year 1955 was much higher compared to the year 1974. However, because of economic independence and better opportunities in employment there were marked increases in fertility rate of unmarried mothers starting in 1970s from 11 percent of all births to 28 percent in 1990. At 2005, 37 percent all births in US were to unmarried women. Dual earner families increase from 45 to 58 percent of all married couple families. Dual earner family or female headed family became more common rapidly replacing the traditional married couple family or the breadwinner husband and home-maker wife. Dual earner earns more income on average than the single earner family. However, the maternal employment during first year of the child may negatively affect children's cognitive developments. The specific finding about single parent family report that the children raised by single parent have a higher high-school drop out and higher rate of teen births than those raised by double parent family. Chapter 11 titled as "Polices affecting paid work and the family" focus on polices to alleviate poverty, government tax policies etc., This chapter examines major changes that occurred during last few years in the US welfare system. The expansion of EITC has played an important role in reducing poverty. In contracts to many tax credits which can benefit only households with income high enough to pay taxes in EITC the refundable feature of tax credit means that government provides a refund if the amount of the credit exceeds tax owed. The EITC transfers income to low income household. The employment outlook for welfare recipients tends to be especially bleak because as a rule they have little education and fewer job skills. Following the effects in developing countries such as Grameen Bank in Bangladesh micro enterprises assistance programs have been developed in US funded by government and private foundations. Child support award for never married mothers continue to raise children under age 15 may receive federally funded health care ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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