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Economics of Race and Gender - Essay Example

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Racism is the form of structure, which demands that certain people demand rights or privileges more than people who in this case may be from different color. In most cases, racism involves white people…
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Economics of Race and Gender
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Economics of Race and Gender Introduction Globally, gender and racism are vital determinants in a country’s economy. Racism is the form of structure, which demands that certain people demand rights or privileges more than people who in this case may be from different color. In most cases, racism involves white people who experience privileges and rights that cannot be permitted to people with different colors. At times, racism is exceedingly obvious since it is manifested through individuals as well as gender (Kim, pg 15). Like disability, people often find ways to justify racism through incidents of discrimination, which to some extent may be gender. This in turn, affects business, politics, and consumption. For many years, economics of race and gender has been a core issue whereby traditionally, women were permitted to perform household chores (Kim, pg 63).
Since time immemorial, women’s contribution to the society was limited, and mostly controlled by men. However, women’s role has changed tremendously with time, and they are standing tall to demand their rights politically, socially, and economically. As a result, women are playing a vital role in economical status. In reality, more women are entering into the stock market more than ever before. Amazingly, the automobile industry is responding positively to designing cars for women for instance the Volvo car (Jayson 1). On the other hand, men are taking more traditional roles that were meant for women such as cooking. With no doubt; the icon for a woman in 1950s was a domesticated mother and a housewife who cleaned, cooked, and took care of her family. Nevertheless, in the 21st Century, women possess the role as mothers, wife, domestic organizer, and career. Overall, the role of women is changing as they are going into better paid jobs, and eventually men are forced to share household responsibilities (Jayson 1). This would mean an increase in job opportunities for women and men in that, one party can work longer while the other party looks after children or other family chores. With this in mind, the following paper aims at discussing Economics of race and gender, and discussing this, it will evaluate how roles in the household have changed tremendously (Burnette, 332).
Economic of gender: The changing role of women and men in household
In the article entitled, Family life, roles changing as couples seek balance Jayson argues that, gender roles have altered for the last decades in that, men play a greater role in the domestic life as women emerge into the labor market (Jayson 1). In the 21st century, there is a division of labor between women and men commonly referred as conjugal roles. This implies that, both men and women have an equal opportunity to penetrate into the market to work. In a global context, most developed countries have established the need of creating opportunities for both women and men to disperse into the market place for a key factor of the country’s economy. There has been the creation of jobs for both women and men, and in the former, there have been a reduction of time spent in household chores (Jayson 1). In other words, there has been a notable change in how women are furthering studies with an aim of getting better paid jobs. Eventually, men have been forced to share household chores, which traditionally, were prohibited. Traditionally, men were only permitted to provide for the family while women were permitted to domestic chores. Changes in the family life has made women’s and men’s role more alike as both balance between household chores and work. As economic crisis lay off, couples have established the need of sharing responsibilities as they step out together in the market place to work (Kim, pg 51).
Moreover, women have changed their role in the society in that, most are in better paid jobs, and tremendously enhancing change in the country’s economy. Traditionally, “men were known to be breadwinners but, things have changed in that women work as they share chores equally” (Jayson 1). Couples are sharing housework more equally as they enhance an extensive improvement in employment and wage regressions. In response to this, governments and companies have adopted an equity hiring practices, in which all people receive rightful share in wages. As a result, there have been equal job opportunities for both men and female hence, creating a need to share household chores (Kaufman, pg 252).
In facts, “women role has changed dramatically in that they are embracing leadership roles in large numbers, overseeing their legislatures’ daily business,
shaping states’ political agendas and, advocates say, laying the groundwork for getting more women elected” (Jayson 1). It is with no doubt; women are moving into leadership roles dramatically, and amazingly demanding rights for more women to be elected. Traditionally, women were not advocated to move into leadership roles because of misconceptions that women are weak vessels thus, cannot make sober decisions. With such misapprehension, women were sidelined in the society to the extent, not considered paramount in the society. Men occupied leadership roles laying the groundwork for more men to be appointed for effectiveness of decision making and leadership styles. However, in the 21st century, movements towards women receiving rightful share such as African repatriation movement have emerged with an aim of enhancing change in the economy of gender.
As per Jayson (1), there is a lot of confusion on what is appropriate for women and women to do in the society. There has been an increase in numbers of the fathers taking care of children, the United State representing highest figure of men participating in household chores. Over the past thirty years, there have been beliefs of equal parenting whereby both men and women participate in parenting (Jayson 1). In this regard, the definition of equal parenting has involved four domains of life that include child raising, housework, bread winning, and recreation among others. Both partners have an equal chance of participating in the above arenas. This suggests the changing roles in the household in that; there is no household manager who does more work than the other. Both partners have an equal chance to work at their own pursuit, raise their children, and of-course be with each other. From Jayson findings, equally parenting has significantly helped in providing equal chance of eradicating financial crisis. In the 21st century, there is division of labor between women and men as both penetrate to enhance effectiveness in economic crisis (Bartlett, pg 127).
In the UK, there is a problem of gender pay gap is common, this are associated with these highlighted factors. Human capital: here the differences in education level and work experience between men and women comes into play. This comes out clearly when one compares between married and unmarried females. For married women who will at one point need to be out of work for some time to take care of he children, this also impacts on the work experience. Working part time as many women does yield low pay as compared to fulltime jobs (Kaufman, 76). Most women in the UK with children are jobless, and those with the privilege to work go for the part time jobs. Women in most cases do not spend commuting; those who work prefer working close to their residential areas. This leaves them with limited option to choose from as concern job opportunities (Bartlett, pg 79). Women tend to be concentrated in some occupational areas. Most of those occupations are not well paying in terms of wages. A drop in the demand for female workforce compared to male will result in a reduction, in the employment of females. This would mean subsequent reduction in the wages of females relative to men.
Economic of race
Often, racism is blatant, and the white enslaving blacks is an obvious outcome of racism. It is documented that, racism is manifested differently on an individual basis and a group level (Jayson 1). For instance, it may be manifested on an individual basis such as education system whereby whites may be given privileges to education. On a group level, people from different colors such as black may be deprived of privileges to better paid jobs. In Canada, poverty rates among the racialized people are high, and monetary wealth concentrated in the white population. In this case, the reason why racialized Canadians have the likelihood of being poor because of pay difference since on average, racialized people significantly earn less than other people (Jayson 1). Worse to this, racialized women are more likely to experience wage gap twice more. Canadian citizen tend to have highly paid jobs while racialized women occupy disproportionate jobs, temporary, low status, and home chores. What enhances such difference in wages is the fact that, Canadians are more educated than most immigrants contributing to workforce discrimination. While most corporations and organizations have adopted equal employment practices, many are yet to do so. In facts, in most job interviews the first thing that one sees is skin color. In cases where they did not expect a black woman, there is a demeanor change of discrimination. Unfortunately, racism is a live in most work forces and despite being qualified for various job positions; one is denied the right for the job position.
Discrimination is one of the reasons for labour market failure, the basis of this is inequality in the distribution of wealth and income. Tackling the issue of discrimination can be made possibility through policies and government legislation. Sidelined minority groups earn lower salaries, reduced employment opportunities, including limited to, training and fewer promotions. The sidelined groups in the long run are victims of low wages and salaries. Being a victim of low wages mean a fall in the living standards. Racism occurs in the labour market may be cause some workers do not like working with people from certain ethnic backgrounds. It may be also in the case where the customers who buy the products are not dislike (Karsten, 101). In certain cases, the employer does not recognize the contribution that an employee has brought to the business simply because they are from a particular race. The mind set that a group in people from a given race can offer exceptional results into unemployment of this people. Or incase they are employed, they salaries they are given is not commensurate to the work their productivity, experience and applicability for a particular job (Karsten, 102).
The scenario in Canada where resources are not shared equally is the same in all parts of the world. Racism started long time during colonization. Europeans came to colonize Africans but in turn ending up taking their land and displacing them into less fertile areas. Because of their strong economy, they were able to take African back to their countries to provide cheap labour (Jacobsen, pg 283). This ended up in their countries economies growing tremendously first as compared to the African countries. European countries are able to buy resources from the African countries and these have left the African countries grappling with debt payment. They are able to finance education for the African students who intern find their way back to the European countries for better employment opportunities (Rodgers and Boyer pg 24).
According to a research done in the late 1970 s he wages of white women have been on an upward trend since in the early 1980s as compared to those of black women. This will mean an ever increasing economy for the European than the black counterparts. With this allowed to continue will mean that gap between the poor blacks will not go down any time soon (Rodgers and Boyer pg. 29).
Conclusion
Conclusively, this paper has discussed that, economics of race and gender has been a core issue globally. Women’s role has changed as many have demanded their rights politically, socially, and economically. Attention has changed in the recent past from legislation towards encouraging more to further their education in order for them to compete effectively with men in job search (Jacobsen, pg 18). Couples are sharing housework more equally as they enhance an extensive improvement in employment and wage regressions. As discussed in the paper, though there have been dramatic changes in eradicating racism, most resources are not shared equally among all skin colors. There is racism among the blacks who are often enslaved to the whites, which in turn affect a country’s economy (Bettio, pg 09). In this regard, this paper has discussed economics of race and gender, and discussing this, the paper has evaluated how roles in the household have changed tremendously.
Work cited
Jayson, Sharon. “Family life, roles changing as couples seek balance”. USA Today, July 10, 2011, p.1
Bartlett, R. L. (1997). Introducing race & gender into economics. Oxfordshire: Taylor & Francis.
Jacobsen, J. P. (1998). The economics of gender (2nd ed.). Malden, Mass: Blackwell.
Kaufman, R. L. (2010). Race, gender, and the labor market: inequalities at work. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Rodgers, Y., & Boyer, T. (2006). Gender and Racial Differences in Vocational Education. Bradford, England: Emerald Group Pub..
Burnette, J. (2008). Gender, work and wages in industrial revolution Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bettio, F. (2009). Frontiers in the Economics of Gender. London: Taylor & Francis.
Karsten, M. F. (2006). Gender, race, and ethnicity in the workplace: issues and challenges for todays organizations. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers.
Kim, M. (2007). Race and economic opportunity in the twenty-first century. London: Routledge. Read More
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