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ioners, and allows children to take charge of the play by their selves, in a manner that result to dealing with emotional, behavioural or other issues (Axline 1976, p. 20; Wilson and Ryan 2005, p. 59). It also helps the formation of the child-therapist relationship, understanding that one should be non-judgmental and create a favorable environment that promotes development in the child. Playing with imaginative toys let a child to deal with issues that would not undermine his or her defenses against topics that are emotionally demanding. Furthermore, play appears to be an intrinsic ability that has a mental organizing mechanism throughout the process of development, using mainly non-verbal symbols (Wilson and Ryan 2005, p. 64).
Nancy Boyd Webb outlines the basic purposes of play therapy: to deal with emotional, problem solving, behavioural, and spiritual issues confronted by children. She also differentiates play from play therapy, in that the latter places play in the context of a therapeutic relationship, which results to a needed healing process (p. 47).
Specific forms of therapy that deal with children and play are structured play, quasi-naturalistic play, and free play (Eisenberg 2004, p. 31). According to Shriberg and Kwiatkowski (1982, p. 250), structured play involves using play to motivate the child to try to produce a desired response. However, it is okay if the response is not correct, as the focus is to encourage the child to participate in the play session and make an attempt towards a different behaviour. Quasi-naturalistic play focuses on giving an environment that assures the child of his or her safety and that the adult will follow through depending on the child’s own progress. It could be child-initiated, where prompts are given only after the child has clearly initiated interactions, or directive or teacher-initiated, where prompts are presented to elicit interaction from the child and to guide him or her towards goals set by the therapist.
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Most often, when a student is to transfer schools or applying for a new school, the curriculum of the school is what’s being looked at. Every school has their own curriculum practices and theories to offer and one should closely look at them before deciding if this is what they want for their education.
Early childhood (from 0 to 5 years) is a period in which rapid child development happens. People often say that whatever the practices or knowledge learned during this period will remain in the minds of the child till the end of his life. Children during their early childhood spend majority of their time in schools.
Children development is of utmost importance to the parents especially having in mind that it has a bearing on the future of the children. Children development has however been a touchy subject mainly due to the diversity in the ways in which it could be enhanced.
It is for this reason that education during the said years is crucial, sometimes even dictating the degree by which the student excels in later years of his/her life (Dewey 2000: 89). Therefore, educators must take care that the proper process of development is provided for the child, as well as the best environment for learning.
Consequently the policies as well as the curriculum used in early year’s education in any of the countries in are often different from the ones used in other parts of the United Kingdom. For example, the English system of education basically focuses on the quality of education while the Scottish system has more emphasis towards the breadth of education.
They should also be developmentally appropriate to the life and learning of the young children. Early childhood teachers, therefore, must acquire the knowledge necessary to implement and develop child centered curriculum practices that inherently stimulate and motivate the young ones desire to become engaged in their own learning.
In the European Community, there are noticeable differences in the way provisions are offered and implemented. Moss discussed in the book Contemporary Issues in the Early Years that parental leaves are offered especially in countries in mainland Europe. Publicly funded services usually apply to nurseries or group care for children below 2 years old but majority of services for children in this age bracket are still funded privately by relatives and childminders.
oach of educating children is very effective when compared to others as this method is ‘child – centric’ and the approach involves the parents and teachers only playing the part of moderators in the self development and improvement of children.
1. This approach brings out