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According to Needham (p. 222), hierarchy refers to the structure of organization management where there is direct communication links between superior and subordinates. In this kind if structure each member has a clear understanding of the chain of command and to whom he or she is responsible to. It is from the top of the company, the managing director down to the workforce below. An organization ought to operate within a structure that is appropriate with its purposes for it to fulfill its mission effectively. Large organizations are normally divided into functional areas. In the case of syngenta, its functions includes: research and development, global supply which also include manufacturing, human resources, sales and marketing, finance and information systems. The company’s structure is identical to most companies, it has likelihood of having several layers of authority. The number of levels is determined by structure that the organization has. It can be a flat or hierarchical structure. A hierarchical structure is composed of several levels of management, each having span of control which is narrow. In this kind of structure, instructions are directed from level of management on the top to the workforce below. Feedback comes vice versa from the workers below to the supervisors on the top. In the hierarchical structure there is chain of control, this is the reporting system from those on the top of the hierarchy to those below. In this kind of structure, there is strict supervision. In addition, this kind of structure has clear promotion opportunities. This clarity reduces the levels of stress among the managers and employees. In this kind structure, everyone knows their roles to play. However, hierarchical organisations face communication challenges, hence, lack of effective management delays the passing of information in the chain of command. Another setback here is that employees may lack full empowerment. This does not allow them to b e innovative.
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Firstly, the concept of informal group has got great significance in modern human resource management practices since this idea offers extensive benefits to employees and thereby to organisation as a whole. Human beings as social animals, wish to get respect, power, and autonomy.
It is an interdisciplinary field that includes sociology, psychology, communication and management” (Lamb, 2010). It was originally treated as a part of the field of Psychology for its high focus on observation and analysis of human behaviour. However, it rapidly emerged as an independent field due to the complexities and unique nature of workplace settings, integrating the studies of sociology, communication and management as well.
In an attempt to accomplish this study, the details of the events that occurred at work during the week have been noted down. The approach of noting down the various events taking place in the workplace would facilitate the process of understanding the theoretical concept of organisational behaviour, as it is very practical and beneficial.
The metaphors that will be discussed for this study are the image of an organisation as an organism, and an organisation as a culture. The organisation studied in relation to these metaphors is IKEA, the home furniture retailer. Relevant examples within the organisation’s evolutionary process will be given where necessary to illustrate the significance of the metaphors in question.
Organisational behaviour has therefore grown to be defined through the limits of the interactions between the individual and team as well as the interaction between teams and the individual. Groups differ sharply from teams due to the value and function. Groups are defined and identified by the primary purpose of interaction and sharing of information with the goal of helping the individual perform within their allocated individual areas (Scott, 2007).
1. Considering a negative experience one has had as a customer in interacting with an employee of an organisation. Using knowledge of OB to analyse the possible cause of this employee’s behaviour. 2. There’s no such thing as ‘stress’ since it is in an individual’s mind, and just an excuse to take time off from work.
Organisational behavior is a descriptive subject and it has been under study for so many years. This study is ongoing and with time there may be different changes observed in the behavior of the employees and human resources in general. The benefits of the discipline are experienced by all managers and they have been able to develop effective outcomes.
Demographic factors include the socio-economic background you come from, your age, your gender, your race, your nationality etc. Organisations are on a look out for people that belong to a good socio-economic background, have good education or are young as such people are thought to be better performers than others.
As such, this paper has been designed to critically discuss and evaluate how a manager might set about achieving change in an organisation’s culture. The paper starts by explaining the concepts of change and culture in order to gain a clear understanding on the main issue surrounding the topic.
In most cases, people participate in different activities in an organisation as could be motivated by other issues that could enhance or challenges their output, which does not only affect their individual performance but also that of the company (Brooks, 2003, p.73).
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