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These compounds are notorious for their health hazards. Most of the health effects are due to inhibition of cholinesterases (Kamanyire and Karalliedde, 2004). Other than this, inhibition of other enzymes and individual susceptibility also play a role. The compounds are highly lipid-soluble and can be absorbed from any route like skin, conjunctiva, mucus membranes, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract.
The onset of illness, severity and duration of each phase of illness depends not only on the type of the OP compounds to which the individual has been exposed to, but also the dosage of exposure, route of exposure, characteristics of the cholinesterase enzyme, rate of metabolism in the body and the physico-chemical properties of the compound. Cholinesterase plays an important role in the cell-to-cell communication and is present in several parts of the body like blood, nerves, neuromuscular tissue and glandular tissues. Inactivation of acetyl cholinesterase causes accumulation of acetyl choline in ganglia and synapses leading to various clinical problems (Kamanyire and Karalliedde, 2004).
Exposure to these OP compounds leads to triphasic illness in human beings. The first phase is the cholinergic phase. In most of the exposed individuals, only the cholinergic phase may be observed. This is followed by an intermediate phase in 20 percent of the cases, followed by a final phase. The initial 2 phases are associated with mortality and morbidity, while the final phase is not associated with mortality and may not be preceded by the initial 2 phases (Kamanyire and Karalliedde, 2004). In the acute cholinergic phase, accumulation of acetyl choline in the muscarinic sites leads to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased gastrointestinal motility, vomiting, bradycardia and blurring of vision due to miosis. Accumulation in nicotinic sites like the neuromuscular junction results in flaccid
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As a positively charged ion, methyl mercury combines with anions, such as chloride (Cl-), nitrate (NO3-), hydroxide (OH-), and sulphur containing anions, such as thio groups (SH). Indeed, the thio group on the amino acid cysteine and hence in proteins containing cysteine has high affinity for methyl mercury forming a strong covalent bond.
In the field of forensic, the study of toxicology is used to figure out the level of chemical contact and the level of injury caused by toxic substances. The study of forensic toxicology is conducted by a forensic toxicologist who needs to take into consideration the context in which the investigation is occurring (Levine 3).
There is probably no other singular event that represents how awful these sorts of accidents can be is the story of Chernobyl. Most people have heard references to the Chernobyl and Nuclear plant accident that made it famous. However, most people today probably do not know the magnitude of the effects of these accidents and the horrifying side-effects that it has had and continues to cause.
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While developing useful things, various toxic materials are produced as by-product or as ingredient of useful products.
Scientists and society is gradually getting more and more concerned over toxic releases . These concerns are increasing the need for better data about thousands of compounds.
Other damage, including physical abnormalities, developmental delays and fetal growth retardation are known as Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE).
All research journal discussed similar issue of 'FAS' that is based on extrapolation from epidemiological studies of pregnant women.
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This discussion considers the context of the long history of new technological innovations being introduced for their touted positive benefits to human life, which later turn out to be toxic to human health or the environment, or both, in the long term (Miller 2013; Brody
Toxicology is the study of toxicity and it covers all biological organizations. It embraces concepts from other scientific subjects to measure the degree of exposure as well as the modes of prevention. There are number of
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