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Review of Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds and Pharmaceuticals - Coursework Example

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This work called "Review of Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds and Pharmaceuticals" describes the mechanisms of their effects on human health and the latest water treatment aimed at removing these compounds. The author outlines the reasons for pollution in the North Sea. …
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Review of Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds and Pharmaceuticals
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Download file to see previous pages The EDCs have been implicated in disorders of the neuroendocrine system, specifically on the hypothalamic neurotransmitter system, size of the specific hypothalamic region, and the numbers of cells expressing the estrogen receptor β (Gore 2008). Certain chemical groups can disrupt and mimic the reproductive hormones of fish, resulting in feminization and premature egg yolk production in fish (Parrett n.d.). Aside from effects on the reproductive system, these disrupters of hormonal activity have also been related to the prevalence of obesity (Newbold, et al. 2007; Elobeid and Allison 2008), and lately, schizophrenia (Brown 2009).
In 1997, the United States’ Environmental Protection Agency came out with an effects assessment analysis of environmental endocrine disruption (US Environmental Protection Agency 1997). The analysis focused on human health and ecological effects, and after studying the data, it was recommended that risk assessment should be improved by conducting more studies on the absorption, metabolism, and elimination of these compounds. This paper summarized the results of newer studies, and give conclusions and recommendations where sustained and new directions should go. In general, due to the amounts of toxicants causing life-altering effects, the paper is important in promoting the health interests of a large segment of the population of regions where water pollution is a problem.
The paper presents its analysis of the risks, effects, and treatment of EDCs and PPCPs in a methodical manner. The type of presentation made it easy even for non-technical individuals to understand the breadth of the topic. The authors introduced the problem first, then goes on to describe the chemical nature of the more known EDCs and PPCPs, how these reach the rivers and other bodies of water, and most importantly, a mechanism for their effect on hormonal action is presented. Tables and illustrations were very useful in showing the types of different EDCs and PPCPs that have been identified. The compounds are pharmaceuticals like antibiotics, pesticides, poly-aromatic hydrocarbons, and steroid analogs. However, it was also obvious that only a few research groups were working on the identification and quantification of the compounds, and that most of the samples were taken from a few countries in Europe, UK, and the US. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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