For instance, convicted inmates are automatically prohibited to vote in Hungary, Romania, Estonia, Armenia and the United Kingdom. The issue is specifically questionable in the United Kingdom.1 The British High…
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the UK government was in violation of the European Convention on Human Rights; the Grand Chamber of the European Court dismissed the appeal of the British government in October 2005. But as of June 2006 there has been no revision in UK law on the issue.3
Once the European Court of Human Rights ultimately rejected the British government’s inexcusable appeal in the John Hirst’s case they granted the New Labour Government with a rare and genuine opportunity to implement their much proclaimed policy of political and social inclusion.4 Until Hirst’s case, whenever any person in the United Kingdom is sentenced to imprisonment they sacrificed more than their rights or freedom. They also sacrificed their right to vote and along with it their position as citizens. Convicts remain the last primary group to be prohibited from the electorate.5 Consequently their welfare is mostly overlooked and politicians have little motivation to pay comprehensive and knowledgeable attention in penal policy.6 The electoral disentitlement of inmates is a remnant of the nineteenth century which plays no contemporary role and which is in conflict with the declared commitment of the government to social and political inclusion.7
Sentenced inmates in the UK have been stripped of their right to vote ever since the Forfeiture Act of 1870, immediately after the vote was bestowed upon multitudes of working class men in urban areas and after transportation was closed down as a court ruling.8 The forfeiture was brought in by a privileged class resolute to shun impoverished offenders away from the ballot box. In the past, the moving of lawbreakers and a quite controlled authorisation had implied that right to vote for inmates had never been a problem.9 The beginnings of the electoral banning of inmates can be traced back from the ancient concept of ‘civic death’, a sentence involving the forfeiture of citizenship rights.10 The prohibition reveals outdated and negative concepts of social
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Trademarks and service marks are words, names, symbols, or devices used by manufacturers of goods and providers of services to identify their goods and services, and to distinguish their goods and services from goods manufactured and sold by others (Radcliffe and Brinson, n.d.).
Secondly, the study seeks to find out whether legal origin and shareholder protection are associated in any way, and whether countries with the common law origin show signs of robust development of the stock market, compared with countries that mainly apply civil law.
I conducted further research on the Incorporated Council of law reporting for England and Wales only to find that it has been in existence since 1865 and prove to be an authority on both law and its accurate reporting. The fact that the Council operated as a charity served to further convince me of its dedication to accurate reporting and its commitment to do with no consideration for financial gain.
(Melone and Kames, 63) The proscribed form for lodging these disputes was by way of a writ which set out specific claims and remedies. (Melone and Kames, 63)
The Royal courts were divided into three common law courts. They were the
Secondly, all citizens, regardless of rank and file, are equally accountable to the laws, as administered in the courts. Thirdly, constitutional laws do not provide the source of the rule of law but is the consequences of the
w” has an evolving history starting from the local traditions of the Anglo-Saxons times in the fifth century and culminating in the modern approaches where continental laws are gaining importance. The main sources of English Law are as follows:
In 1215, the King Council’s
When a case is decided by a judge then his decision and the basis of the case becomes a precedent which other courts follow while deciding a case which is similar in nature. The systems of rules of Common law is dependent more on