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The paper is written to inform the reader about this drug from the categories of the DSM-IV through the issues of treatment.
According to King, Davison, Neale and Johnson (2007), substance related disorders are defined as disorders in which drugs such as alcohol and cocaine are abused to such an extent that behavior becomes maladaptive, social and occupational functioning are impaired and control or abstinence becomes impossible. Reliance on the drug may be psychological as in substance abuse or physiological as in substance dependence or addiction.
According to the DSM IV TR the following is the criteria for substance dependence and abuse: A maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by three (or more) of the following, occurring any time in the same 12-month period:
7. The substance use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance (for example, current cocaine use despite recognition of cocaine-induced depression or continued drinking despite recognition that an ulcer was made worse by alcohol consumption).
One of which outlines whether substance dependence is; With physiologic dependence (evidence of tolerance or withdrawal) or Without physiologic dependence (no evidence of tolerance or withdrawal). In addition, remission categories are classified into four subtypes:
1. Recurrent substance use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home (such as repeated absences or poor work performance related to substance use; substance-related absences, suspensions, or expulsions from school; or neglect of children or household).
4. Continued substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated
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Author’s Full Name: Professor’s Name: Department: Date: Addictions and Substance Use Disorders The history of drugs or non-food substances goes back many centuries. As early as 6000BC when farming was discovered humans also discovered the process of fermentation, which produced beverages that induced feelings of elevated moods, happiness and intoxication.
Though its popularity has declined somewhat since the 1970’s and 80’s, cocaine is still one of the top drugs of choice among users, abusers, and addicts. Blaise writes, “Cocaine abuse is widespread but rarely admitted. There is no cocaine consumer profile either for social class, age or sex” (pg. 1263). In truth, cocaine is not as insidious a drug as one might suppose. While users can typically hide their use for a little while, extended use of cocaine shows obvious external signs of their drug habit.
These drugs affect the behavior, emotions and normal thought process of people. The initial effects of these drugs used by people are soothing and calming, which are the main attraction for the abusers, however, consequently they lead to substance-related disorders (Duran & Barlow 2010).
Drugs refer to substances that affect both the mind through the central nervous system, and bodily functions. Psychoactive substances have their effects concentrated in the central nervous system to alter mood, consciousness, perception and behavior in an individual.
It was extracted from a plant leaf known as the Enythroxylon of a coca bush which is grown in Peru and Bolivia. It was developed with the objective of treating people who were suffering from different kinds of illnesses. The drug is abused by the young people in the society, but on the other hand can be administered by a doctor for medical uses such as treatment of local anesthetic for the eye, ear and throat during surgeries.
The study of comorbidity between disordered eating patterns and substance use in non-clinical female populations has included community, high school, and university samples. In non-clinical community-based adult populations, associations have been found between the syndrome of bulimia nervosa and alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, marijuana use, amphetamine use and tranquilizer abuse.
One of the first things functions that a new baby’s body will perform is self regulation. This is essentially the body’s ability to maintain homeostasis with fluctuating external conditions. An example of a changing external condition is temperature. One of the key survival mechanisms to the human body is the ability to maintain homeostasis (internal body conditions) with varying external conditions.
In case of ‘substance abuse’, it is related to the use of certain performance enhancing drugs or psychoactive drugs, albeit illegally (in most cases) for non-medical/non-therapeutic purposes. In this case the term abuse is inclusive of the syndrome ‘dependency’. The most
The author states that substance use disorder is a term that encompasses a number of different substances and disorders. Out of these disorders, substance abuse is the disorder that is frequently encountered. The approach with which a clinician will assess a substance abuse will differ depending on the context in which a patient presents for treatment.
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