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They usually utilize space in conveying meaning in several approaches which are naturally cognitive. Icons, typically are employed in…
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Running Head: EVALUATION RESEARCH Evaluation Research 349123 Evaluation Research Graphic Displays Graphic displays like maps, diagrams and maps are used to provide models, support memory, attract attention, discovery and facilitate inference. They usually utilize space in conveying meaning in several approaches which are naturally cognitive. Icons, typically are employed in portraying elements with likenesses while depiction figures are for portraying other relations which are based on proximity.
Darrell (1993) holds that statistics obtained from these graphical displays can be used to lie or be misleading. Poor use of statistics can be found any where; in polls, magazines, TV and even in some research papers. Maps, graphs or charts can be used to provide average (mean, mode and median) which is then employed in reporting results of a certain survey or experiment presented in the graphical displays. The mean, mode and median would be quite differing from each other depending on the data presented. Each will present a different result
Sometimes graphical displays such as charts and graphs present ordinal data that does not require mean. Mean in this case becomes meaning less and would therefore present misleading information. Some graphs provide misleading information if they don’t provide the right scale which represents the actual variable. The use of magazines and newspapers sometimes give meaningless information with colorful pictures which are simple to represent survey responses and public opinion (Chudler, 2009). Therefore one has to be careful while reading these results. There is need to understand the nature of information being presented what most appropriate approach to present it. One has to be careful while making comparisons and as well use the independent variables to make comparisons.
Descriptive statistics vs. inferential statistics
Descriptive statistics are employed in quantitative terms to describe the most significant data collection features. They are distinguished from inferential statistics or inductive statistics in that they target to summarize quantitatively a set of data instead of supporting inferential statements regarding population which are represented by the data. Even when inferential statistical analysis is used to analyze data and draw conclusions more general presentations are done with more formal analyses by use of descriptive statistics to provide the audience with a sense of the analyzed data (Supercourse, 2009).
Supercourse (2009) further asserts that examples of descriptive statistics include measure of central tendency, measure of association, measure of dispersion, histogram and cross-tab as well as contingency table. Performing a formal hypothesis test on some results is an example of inductive statistics.
Parametric vs. Non parametric
Parametric statistics are statistics having measurement of interval-level which the representative sample taken from a population that is considered normal. Non parametric statistics on the other hand are employed when dealing with ordinal or nominal measurement where assumptions require distribution normality.
Evaluation Research
By definition, evaluation refers to the systematic examination of an object’s merit or worth. Evaluation research is an area of research methodology which is closely related to traditional social research work (Trochim, 2006). This kind of research makes use of methodologies as traditional social research, however due to the fact that it happens in organizational or political environment, it demands management ability, skills of group work, political dexterity as well as multiple stakeholders sensitivity in addition to several other skills which social research does not rely on (Trochim, 2006).
Types of Evaluation research
The two major distinctions of evaluation research are formative and summative evaluation.
i). Formative evaluation has various evaluation types including:
Assessment of needs: this deals with several issues like the people needing the program, the greatness of the need as well as the strategies to use in order to achieve the need.
Assessment of Evaluability: finds out if the evaluation has feasibility.
Structured Conceptualization; assists stakeholders to elaborate the technology or program, expected results and the targeted population.
Evaluation of implementation: examines the program fidelity
ii). Summative evaluation includes:
Evaluation of results, evaluation of effects, cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis, secondary analysis and meta-analysis.
Evaluation Questions and methods
There are several questions and variety of approaches used to address these questions.
a). Formative research questions and methodology
i). What is the problem or issue definition and scope?
ii). How big is the problem and where exactly is it?
iii). In what ways can the program be delivered in order that it tackles the problem or
issues.
iv). What is the effectiveness of delivering the program?
b). Summative research questions and methodology
i). Is there any feasible evaluation?
ii). Is the program effective and by how much?
iii).What’s the program total effect?
Some of the decisions to consider when choosing the most appropriate statistical data to employ in data analysis include: development of comprehensive database, financial marketing excel worksheet formatting of production data. This assist in using actual data and making of decisions. The statistician must consider the use of data when performing functions such as forecasting and prediction as well as statistical models.
While applying the statistics to any problem solving, one needs to start with the process to be put under examination or rather the population.
Design of Hypothesis study for criminal Justice

Problem statement
Criminal justice system is employed to maintain and uphold law in the society. These include preventing and controlling occurrence of crime. The system has been used for years to enforce laws, punish lawbreakers and try criminal cases. Despite this enforcement, several people have been breaking the law as opposed to the country’s laws. There is therefore the need to examine the reasons why these people break the law.
Hypothesis
Understanding the reasons why people break the law even after employing the law enforcement agencies and strong justice centers would assist in knowing the necessary strategies the justice system and the state should employ in preventing these crimes and if enforcing the law would make the criminals stop committing the crimes.
The research design
The kind of research would be evaluation research which would guide practice, law as well as the public policy. This evaluation would be employed to study if the policies, laws and policies have the required effectiveness. Quasi-experimental designs would thus be employed in the evaluation research. Statistics are contained in research concerning criminal justice and criminology (Trochim, 2006). Comprehending these statistics helps in handling the research in a more appropriate manner.
References

Chudler, 2009. How to Lie and Cheat with statistics, retrieved on Dec 28, 2009 from
http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/stat3.html
Darrell, H. (1993). How to Lie with Statistics. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
Supercourse. (2009). Descriptive Statistics Lecture: University of Pittsburgh retrieved on Dec
28, 2009 from http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec0421/index.htm
Trochim, W. (2006). Research Methods: Introduction to Evaluation, retrieved on Dec 27, 2009
from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/intreval.htm Read More
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