StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...
Free

Advantages of Induced Pluripotent Stem cell research - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
These are broadly categorized into embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are “pluripotent”, having the capacity to develop into any…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.4% of users find it useful
Advantages of Induced Pluripotent Stem cell research
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Advantages of Induced Pluripotent Stem cell research"

Advantages of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research Stem cells are undifferentiated or naïve cells that are capable of developing into other types of cells. These are broadly categorized into embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are “pluripotent”, having the capacity to develop into any of the specialized cells in the body (e.g. heart, muscle, and retina), thereby providing unlimited potential for cell and regenerative therapies (Pera, Reubinoff and Trounson). Adult stem cells come from adult tissues. These are called multipotent; they can differentiate only to limited types, usually to the same tissues from whence they came from. A very important breakthrough came two years ago with the discovery that adult multipotent adult stem cells can be induced, by the addition of transcription factors, to convert into pluripotent cells (Takahashi, Tanabe and Ohnuki). These cells came to be known as induced pluripotent stem cells or iPS cells.
Research of iPS cell technology must be promoted because of the many advantages of using iPS cells compared to the other stem cell types. The first major advantage is the use of somatic tissues instead of embryos as sources. Various types of somatic tissues can be used as sources of iPS cells for the repair of damaged tissues (Yu, Vodyanik and Smuga-Otto). Patient-derived somatic cells can produce patient-specific iPS cells that contain the patient’s genetic information. When these iPS cells are used in transplantation to replace diseased cells, the risk for rejection is reduced. Immune rejection is a problem in the use of embryonic stem cells (de Wert and Mummery). Another potential application is to use the iPS cells for constructing specific disease models and screening for effective drugs (Yamanaka). The potential therefore is high for healing degenerative and chronic diseases like cystic fibrosis, chronic heart problems, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and many more (Yamanaka).
The advantage of using somatic cells as sources for iPS cells leads to another advantage, which is the removal of the major ethical and moral issues surrounding the use of embryonic stem cells. Ethical and moral issues have hounded stem cell research since its potential applications were discovered, most concerning the use of 4-5 day old embryos as sources of embryonic stem cells. Since the embryos die upon the isolation of stem cells, the main ethical questions centered on life and its beginnings. Other issues were on obtaining stem cells from pre-implantation embryos, and if this is the case, are spare embryos to be used or should embryos for stem cells be created through cloning (de Wert and Mummery).
The discovery of iPS was well-received and met with the expectation that the newer technology will remove the ethical questions that surround embryonic stem cells. This is quite true considering that sources are somatic cells from adult sources. However, based on the proceedings of an international workshop conducted in Spain last summer, it appears that there are new dimensions to the social, legal and ethical aspects of the technology (University of Alberta). The new issues were specifically about intellectual property rights, clinical translation, consent, and privacy of donors and recipients. But these issues do not equal in magnitude the ethical concerns that were raised with the use of embryonic stem cells, and therefore can be through policy development (University of Alberta).
Currently, research on sources, applications, and optimizations of iPS cells is advancing at a very rapid phase. Many obstacles need to be hurdled (reviewed in Yamanaka, 2009) before the clinical benefits can be met. A limitation shared with embryonic stem cells is the formation of teratomas or tumors when undifferentiated cells are introduced into the required cell types. This can be overcome developing protocols that induce complete differentiation into the desired type. Other limitations are the uncertainty in determining the complete reprogramming of somatic cells to the pluripotent state, and the possibility of activating introduced transgenes in the genome of iPS cells, because factors inducing iPS cells formation are introduced attached to viruses. These viruses when integrated into the patient’s genome can be activated and cause unforeseen harm.
IPS cell technology holds great biomedical potential and countless benefits for patients with no options but cell-based therapies. There is no doubt that the present limitations can be overcome because of the fast-paced research techniques and advanced tools available to the researcher.
References
de Wert, G and C. Mummery. "Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Research, Ethics And Policy." Human Reproduction 18.4 (2003): 672-682, DOI: 10.1093/humrep/DEG143.
Pera, M, B Reubinoff and A. Trounson. "Human Embryonic Stem Cells." Journal of Cell Science 113 (2000): 5-10.
Takahashi, K, et al. "Induction Of Pluripotent Stem Cells From Adult Human Fibroblasts By Defined Factors." Cell (2007): doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.019.
University of Alberta. "IPS Cells Raise New Ethical Questions In Stem Cell Debate." 10 December 2009. Science Codex. 13 December 2009 .
Yamanaka, S. "A fresh look at iPS cells." Cell 137 (2009): 13-17.
Yu, J, et al. "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Somatic Cells." Sciencexpress (2007): 1-8 www.sciencexpress.org / 20 November 2007 / Page 1 / 10.1126/science.1151526. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Advantages of Induced Pluripotent Stem cell research Essay”, n.d.)
Advantages of Induced Pluripotent Stem cell research Essay. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1560993-advantages-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-research
(Advantages of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research Essay)
Advantages of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research Essay. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1560993-advantages-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-research.
“Advantages of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1560993-advantages-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-research.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Advantages of Induced Pluripotent Stem cell research

Stem Cell Research

.... Adult stem cells- Numerous adult tissues also possess stem cells. These stem cells are harvested to rectify ailments or cloning tissues, organs, animals or humans or they may be harvested for gene-line engineering. The gene-line engineering aims to function towards disease resistance and functional improvement. Induced pluripotent cells- Through nuclear programming scientists have transformed adult cells into stem cells. Nuclear programming alters the genes to behave like embryonic stem cells and thereby avert immune rejection, although adverse effects could not be documented so far. Amniotic fluid stem cells- Researchers have documented the presence of stem cells in amniotic fluid (Where do stem cells come from?; Stem cells...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Stem cell research

...? of the of the Stem cell Few science and technology issues have lit so much fire of debate as the stem cells research. Stem cells are found in almost all the multi-cellular organisms. Stem cells discovery is an astonishing development in the medical sciences which would have limitless uses in this field. These cells are unspecialized cells characterized by their ability to develop into various different types of cells in the body, for example. Stem cells are found inside the bone marrow as well as in a developing fetus and the umbilical cord. (Boiers) A stem cell can develop into a skin cell, muscle cell or a red blood cell depending on the requirement. In addition to this, stem cells also help in the internal repairing of the organs...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Proposal

Stem Cell Research Legislation

... diseases like the diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson disease, spinal cord injuries among other terminal diseases. However, the belief attached to embryonic stem cell therapy on human beings was derived from a successful scientific test, which involved mice. Recently, pluripotent stem cell was innovated and is undergoing research before approval as an alternative source of stem cell. Owing to the fierce controversies that surround human embryonic stem cells research, many concerned countries have formulated laws, which either illegalize or support the research, to shelter the researchers from fear of rejections and assaults by the society. Developed countries like China, the UK, Korea, and Switzerland adopted progressive laws...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Stem Cell Research

... more research on stem cells, as long as these experiments do not distort any of the established religious beliefs. Objectives: Most scientists agree that stem cells have many medical advantages. Some scientists even regard stem cells as offering a great potential for the alleviation of human suffering, as they can provide cure for a number of diseases. Millions of people around the world suffer from diseases that may be treated more effectively with stem cells. These diseases include Alzheimer, Diabetes, Parkinson’s, and heart disease, and certain types of cancer (Takahashi et al.). In addition, stem cells can offer great help in many different areas of health and medical research. For example, studying stem cells helps us to understand...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Stem Cell Research

... cell research technology. The ability of stem cells to produce all the types of cells is known as ‘pluripotency’, which occurs to cells in their earlier period before the beginning of cell specialization. These can give a consistent supply of the specialized cells that can be used for disease modeling, basic research, and future cell replacement therapies. Stem Cell Research has the ability to reproduce more Embryonic Stem Cells by making properties of tetracarcinoma, tumor, as well as the properties of basic tissues for teeth, hair and gut. Teratocarcinomas have unspecialized cells that were popularly referred to ‘cancer cells’ in the 1970s. They alone can almost all specialized tumor cells. In particular, within the same period...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Stem Cell Research - Stem cell research

There are a number of sources for obtaining human stem cells. The first is IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) treatment, where surplus embryos (and unfertilized eggs for creating embryos) are donated for research with the consent of the donor rather than being destroyed following treatment. The second source is aborted tissues, which are used as stem cells taken from the aborted foetus. Another is umbilical cord blood, rich in stem cells. These cells are harvested following the baby's birth.
The most controversial is perhaps therapeutic cloning, where cells are created for research that is genetically identical to the donor (patient). This is done by removing the nucleus of an egg and fusing this egg with any enucleated cell from t...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Stem Cell Research (outline)

...STEM CELL OUTLINE Introduction: One of the gravest moral and ethical issues facing people today is that of stem cell research. The two sides of this debate are very polarized, neither brooking any opposition. The positions are so seriously engrained and so emotional, that it can be very difficult reason things out. The stem cell research debate bring up many philosophical and moral issues such as what constitutes life, when does life begin, and how is life created. These questions are fundamental to our social values and say a lot about the way we think about life. Thesis: The stem cell debate is highly polarized and reflects many important ethical and moral values at the heart of our society. I. The issue is polarizing. A. Opposition...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Stem Cell Research

...STEM CELLS One of the gravest moral and ethical issues facing people today is that of stem cell research. The two sides of this debate are very polarized, neither brooking any opposition. The positions are so seriously engrained and so emotional, that it can be very difficult reason things out. The stem cell research debate bring up many philosophical and moral issues such as what constitutes life, when does life begin, and how is life created. These questions are fundamental to our social values and say a lot about the way we think about life. The stem cell debate is highly polarized and reflects many important ethical and moral values at the heart of our society. Indeed, when all the fact are in about stem cells, it still a very...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Stem Cell Research Legislation

...RUNNING HEADER: Stem Cell Research Legislation Stem Cell Research Legislation BY YOU YOUR SCHOOL INFO HERE HERE Stem Cell Research Legislation AHistory of Stem Cell Research Legislation After the landmark court case Roe v. Wade which is still being debated today, the Department of Health and Human Services established a moratorium on research that is federally-funded using living human embryos (Science Progress, 2009). In 1992, advances in research began to illustrate the potential benefits of using stem cells to better the human condition, thus the Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee voted in favor of a bill designed to end President George H.W. Bush’s federal funding ban involving experiments allowing tissue transplantation...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Embryonic Stem Cell Research

The essay "Embryonic Stem Cell Research" talks about the embryonic stem cells which have two unique properties including their ability to grow and differentiate as well as to replicate infinitely. The ability of ES cells to self-renew indefinitely is the main reason why it is used in treatments for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after either an injury or disease. Other than its curative essence, the ES cell is beneficial in studying early developments in human as an in vitro technique in toxicology testing.
Varying conviction between religion and science in regards to Human life’s inception has yielded to uncalled for controversy more so in embryonic stem cell research. Hence, prompting some contended the...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

The Ethical Controversy of Stem Cells

As time goes by, people often think about what could be the next milestone for healthcare: Will doctors be able to cure cancer? Will cures be discovered for Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and diabetes? Will we replace organs with mechanical man-made machines? It may surprise people but technology has made it possible to cure debilitating diseases as Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, diabetes; even the production of organs may not be far in the future considering these healthcare breakthroughs. These newly developing technologies could yield the biggest medical discovery yet. However, people are fighting against its discovery, and among them, even the President of the United States. This technology that...
11 Pages(2750 words)Term Paper

Research Methodologies and Their Application to Counseling

Data must be subjected to the thinking process in terms of ordered reasoning.

Descriptive Research describes and interprets what it is. It is concerned with conditions of relationships that exist; practices that prevail; beliefs, processes that are going on; effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing.

The process of descriptive research goes beyond mere gathering and tabulation of data. It involves the elements or interpretation of the meaning or significance of what is described. Thus description is often combined with comparison and contrast involving measurements, classifications, interpretation, and evaluation.

In other words, descriptive research may be defined as the purposive...
8 Pages(2000 words)Term Paper

The Work Breakdown Structure and its Advantages in Project Planning

A typical construction project involves a WBS that evolves from an initial task that is successively subdivided into smaller work blocks until the lowest level is reached, indicating a tree-like structure. Subdividing the project breaks down the project work effort into packages that are both manageable and independent. It connotes that the lowest level of the package corresponds to the smallest project work, which requires the shortest completion time periods. As WBS shows the relationship of all elements of a project, a sound basis for cost and schedule control is provided.

Some lists of project activities involved in WBS include budgeting, cost allocation, time allocation and management, and quality assurance. These...
11 Pages(2750 words)Report

Marketing Research Plan: Old Navy

Gap’s credit ratings thereby limiting access to the capital market, international trade matters which may be disruptive of the supply chain, changes to its IT systems disruptive of operations, changes in the IT services agreement with IBM that can disrupt operations and produce adverse effects on financial results, international expansion through franchising and other arrangements may impair the value of its brands if unsuccessful, products are subject to risks associated with overseas outsourcing and manufacturing, and failure of vendors to adhere to Gap’s code of vendor conduct could harm the business. From available data in the 2007 Annual Report, both the Gap and Old Navy brands have exhibited declining net sales....
11 Pages(2750 words)Business Plan

Research Methods in Linguistics

 The writer of content tries to preserve his/her culture and also wants his/her culture to get attached to his/her recent living due to which, he/she makes use of the bilingual aspect to write a narrative.

Because of this writing, the English reader faces some problem in decoding the meaning but he/she realizes the presence of another culture by means of this writing. Many writers provide a glossary at the end so that the readers face no problem in decoding the words given in another language such as Soueif has done but many take it for granted that readers know the other language as well.

The article contains a detailed evaluation of the novel by Soueif which can be categorized as the strength of the re...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Developing a Research Base for Intravenous Peripheral Cannula Resites

...Context of the Paper To begin with, the of the paper is very much apt for the content. Although the could have come up with a more direct title, the title “Developing a Research base for Intravenous Peripheral cannula re-sites. A randomized controlled trial” captures the essence of the paper and what the authors aim to address. They, however, could have made it more direct to the point by maybe saying that the study is about a comparison between 3 day cannula re-sites and cannula re-sites as dictated by clinical condition. Nonetheless, the chosen t title is suitable enough to briefly inform the reader of the topic of the research. Two hypotheses were tested in this paper. There are two groups that were compared in the paper...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

Analysis of the Methods of 3 Research Papers about Child Abuse

Research ethics was maintained as the identity of the individuals participating was kept secret. As far as the validity of the study was concerned, the researchers attempted to use content validity in order to get an accurate response. The content validity focused on measuring off the ethnicities and gender percentages within the area and attempting to get a random sample of individuals via the phone. Their approach to random calling allowed for a significant random sample in the study. There were a few issues, however, with this type of approach. Those answering the phone sometimes were not always the desired individual, and not all of the desired people were surveyed. Different replacements did have to be used, and the attempt w...
6 Pages(1500 words)Literature review

Validating Late Mover Advantages in e-commerce: Evidence from Selected Companies

...Research Proposal: Validating Late Mover Advantages in e-commerce: Evidence from Selected Companies Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 Title 3 Background 3 Objective 4 Project Aim 4 Research Hypothesis 5 Research Questions 5 Ethical Considerations 6 Literature Review 6 Research Methodology 9 Phenomenological Paradigm 9 Positive Paradigm 9 Deductive vs. Inductive Research 10 Data Collection Techniques 10 Proposed Research Methodology 11 Primary Data Collection 11 Survey Questionnaire 11 Research Methodology Limitations 12 Proposed Structure of Report 13 Time Schedule 16 References 17 Title Validating Late Mover Advantages in e-commerce: Evidence from Selected Companies Background E-commerce is a global market place that is characterized...
12 Pages(3000 words)Research Proposal

The Role and Features of Stem Cells

Most criticized is research involving human embryonic stem cells. Most opposition to stem cell research is mainly on moral and religious issues. Most controversies on stem cell research exist, attributed to myths and misconceptions regarding stem cell research. Misconceptions are arising due to the biased nature of reporting from the media as well as an error that results especially when reporters are not conversant with facts on stem cell research. This paper is in favor of stem cell research due to the reasons listed below. The important role it will play in cancer treatment, regenerative medicine, repair of destroyed organs, in cure of killer diseases such as leukemia, Alzheimer’s, diabetes treatment, correction of develo...
6 Pages(1500 words)Coursework

A Framework for Critiquing Quantitative Research Papers

Relevant information of methods used from the Multifactorial Attitudes Questionnaire, Kruskal- Wallis test to ordinal regression have been elaborated.  The results, conclusions, and recommendations are clarified in the research work. Potential benefit is that it makes participants recognize that old need to be given care and inspire attitude change. The harm is that the participants may demand more from their employees relating to the topic. Approval of the Ethics Committee is noted. The findings are categorically explained. The themes include ageism, resources, professional esteem, and working environment. The findings have been explained under each sub-heading. The data have been presented with regard to each question an...

13 Pages(3250 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Advantages of Induced Pluripotent Stem cell research for FREE!

Contact Us