Download file to see previous pages...
Everyone is aware of the dangers of black lung and cave-ins, but the coal has to be brought out at any cost. The long-suffering people in these company towns buried deep in the folded mountains and valleys of the Appalachians are the stuff of legend. Unfortunately, like most legends, the realities of modern coal mining have relegated these people to the realm of fiction. Thanks to mining methods such as Mountain Top Removal (MTR), the coal industry barely needs people at all anymore.
MTR became a popular method of mining coal in the 1970’s. Traditional deep shaft mining using lots of skilled labor and traditional techniques had been growing increasingly expensive due to increasing labor costs and safety regulations. Large coal companies began to use a technique commonly called “strip mining”, where the overburden covering the coal seams was entirely removed. This method allowed for the extraction of large amounts of coal using machinery instead of human labor. This is more economical for the company but provides fewer jobs for the people most affected by the mining. MTR is much like strip mining except it happens on a massive scale. The nature of this type of mining has lead to devastating consequences for the environment, economy and society surrounding these mines.
MTR in the Appalachian region, centering on the states of Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia and Kentucky is largely a product of the geology of the area. Through geologic time, the Appalachian Mountains have been folded and compressed. Coal seams often follow the general topography of the surrounding mountains. Traditional methods of mining involved an angled shaft that penetrated overlying resistant rock in an effort to get at the coal seam. In MTR, the entire top of a ridge is blasted away, exposing the seam. The seam is then worked from top to bottom and down slope using massive dragline and excavation machinery.
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
The Appalachian mountain is one of the mountains that are experiencing mountain top removal. Mountain top removal is the extraction of coal from the top of mountains. This activity is very dangerous to the environment. People who live in these regions believe that coal is the king, but, in the real sense, the people who control coal mining are the kings.
These people are settled to the Indian Territory situation in Western United States that is now known as Oklahoma. During this force relocation massive deaths of people occurred and according to estimates around 4000 Cherokees were met to death in this harsh move (Perdue and Green, p121).
Underground Mining Excavation of hard and soft minerals from underground is achieved through underground mining. Underground mining is undertaken differently in different regions depending on the specific mineral that is being mined. Methods and equipment used to access underground also vary in this respect.
The topic of the speech could be perceived as the national budget or specifically on the nation’s spending. Since President Obama has established an image of credibility and trustworthiness, despite the seriousness of the topic, he could in fact use humor to elicit the audience’s appeal and to make the topic more understandable in the layman’s perspective.
The major organizational element, in this case, is the customers. The predictive scores inform the business about the most probable action by the customer. The production of predictive scores occurs when the subject organization design a predictive model.
al is considered as not only the fastest, but also the cheapest way to extract coal profitably, and so, big coal companies are indiscriminately pursuing it in spite of the serious environmental damage and other concerns caused by the process.
Firstly, mountain top removal for
That is, the financial, non-financial and risks that are associated with the project.
First, the company is privately held. This means that the owner (Dr. Rousseau) has provided the start up capital of the company. In that case, it is impractical for an
3 Pages(750 words)Case Study
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic Appalachian Mountain Top Removal (strip mining) for FREE!