Physical chemistry - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Innovations in science and technology since the early 20th Century have lead to the development of certain standard and efficient procedures in the field of industrial chemistry. Although scientists are on the look out for better industrial processes, there exist some processes…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.9% of users find it useful
Physical chemistry
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Physical chemistry"

Download file to see previous pages An understanding of the Le Chateliers principle and catalysis is essential for proceeding with this study.
Increase in temperature: Exothermic reaction favours reactants, as the heat is absorbed to counterbalance the increase in temperature. Endothermic reaction favours products as the absorbed heat facilitates a larger amount of reactants to convert to products (Atkins & de Paula, 2006).
Change in reactant concentration: An increase in concentration of a reactant in a dynamic equilibrium causes the reaction to favour products, as the excess reactant reacts with other reactants. A decrease in concentration of a reactant favours the reverse reaction as the products are converted to reactants in order to balance the decrease in reactant concentration. (Clark, 2002; Morrison & Boyd, 1992)
Change in product concentration: A decrease in product concentration favours the forward reaction to balance the decrease. An increase in product concentration favours the reverse reaction. (Atkins & de Paula, 2006)
Change in pressure: Increasing the pressure of a system at equilibrium causes changes in the partial pressures of reactants and products. The rate constant is independent of the change in pressure of a system, but depends on ratio of partial pressures of the reactants and products. The reaction moves in the direction where number of moles is less. (Atkins & de Paula, 2006)
A catalyst accelerates a chemical reaction without undergoing a net chemical change. The catalyst reduces the energy of activation by altering the path of reaction to avoid the rate determining step, which is the slowest step in a reaction (Atkins & de Paula, 2006). For example, decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, which is a slow reaction at room temperature, requires activation energy of 76 kJ/mol. In the presence of iodide ions, this activation energy drops to 57 kJ/mol and rate constant ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Physical chemistry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1552775-physical-chemistry
(Physical Chemistry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words)
https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1552775-physical-chemistry.
“Physical Chemistry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1552775-physical-chemistry.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Topics in Physical Chemistry
...to achieve equilibrium. The effect of a catalyst in equilibrium system is not considered under this principle because its effect has nothing to do with equilibrium system. A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of reaction. Catalysts are diverse and are used in both biological, physical and organic chemistry studies. In the above reaction, a catalyst will serve as a propeller of the reaction process. This does not affect the equilibrium system but has an effect on the rate of reaction. It is therefore important to note that catalyst reduces the time taken to achieve chemical equilibrium position. These conditions also apply to a situation in which an inert gas is added into the system. In this...
15 Pages(3750 words)Essay
Chemistry chemistry
...CHEMISTRY QUESTIONS Presented Intramolecular forces operate within the molecules or fundamental units of a substance. This would include the attraction between positive and negative ions in a crystal of an ionic compound, the covalent bonds in a molecular substance as well as the covalent bonds linking atoms in a network structure, such as that of carbon (diamond).Metallic bonds are also classified as intramolecular forces (Frederick, 1979, P.63)Intermolecular forces operate between, rather than within, the molecules of a covalent substance. This would include the attractions exerted by one molecule of a molecular substance on another, such as the force of attraction between water molecules in ice ,the attractions between atoms... relative...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Chemistry
...x100 = 65.62%. 137x27 Question – 3 a. In 1870, Markonikov laid down a basic principle of chemistry that holds till today. The Markonikov Rule states that when a hydrogen halide (Hydrochloric acid, HCl being an example) reacts with an asymmetrically substituted alkene the hydrogen attaches itself to the carbon atom that has the larger number of its hydrogen atoms substituted. The halogen automatically attaches itself to the carbon atom having the least number of its hydrogens substituted. An example of such an addition reaction: Cl2HC=CH2Cl + HCl  Cl2H 2 C=CH2Cl2 Here the halide chlorine attached to the right hand side of the molecule that had fewer hydrogen atoms replaced. b. Enantiomers...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY COURSEWORK
...CHEMISTRY WORK: Q1.)Cyclic Voltammogram. Cyclic voltammogram makes use of 6m M Ascorbic acid in a 1M KNO3 matrix, the reference electrode is Saturated Calomel Electrode(SCE) , in this experiment the scan starts 0.00V(red) and Working Voltage is +o.80 V. A strong peak is reached at 0.35V relative to SCE indicating oxidation of dehydroascorbic acid. The Red Curve shows the first half of the scan 0.00V to 0.80V and back to 0.50V. Chemical Reaction: 2 electron Oxidation of Ascorbic Acid. The process is irreversible because the oxidation of ascorbic acid produces Dehydroascorbic Acid which is very unstable and it decomposes quickly before the reduction cycle can convert it back, thus due to Dehydroascorbic instability the process... , Atmospheric...
4 Pages(1000 words)Coursework
Chemistry
... Introduction to Chemistry: Analysis of Oxygen (O2) Introduction Oxygen is a chemical element that largely forms part of the atmospheric and is widely recognized with the sustenance of life and survival of organisms. It has a formula of O­2. As a chemical element, this substance has an atomic number of 8 and belongs to the chalcogen group on the periodic table; thus, making it build and possess certain significant characteristics for its operations such as being a highly reactive non-metallic element. Subsequently, oxygen is widely used as an oxidizing agent through its readiness to form compounds (in most cases oxides), with most of the atmospheric elements (Bauer, Birk & Pamela 145-149). Identification by mass sets this element... in...
4 Pages(1000 words)Term Paper
Physical Chemistry Lab Report
...Determination of Mn in Steel TA Unknown Sample Number: Quantitative Determination of Mn in Steel Alloy Objective andSignificance The main objective of this experiment involved quantitative determination of Mn in steel using two methods; visible spectroscopy technique, and volumetric analysis. In practical contexts, analyzing the actual components of steel is instrumental in determining the physical properties of the alloy. In alloys, the physical properties of strength, corrosiveness and conductivity are determined by composition of transition metals and trace elements like carbon and manganese. In application, precisely determining the quantity of a transition metal in steel is influential in deriving...
5 Pages(1250 words)Lab Report
Physical Chemistry
.... Numerous changes that occurred in the fields of quantum chemistry, relativity, and uncertainty in the 1920s obligated chemists to review the currently held ideas regarding atoms and their structures. They reduced their reliance on physical models (that for instance described and an electron as a small particle, possessing an electrical charge and moving in a specific path at a specific speed and part of the atom) and placed more emphasis on mathematical models. They searched for mathematical equations that, when answered, would give the precise solutions for the mass, spin, speed, charge, as well as numerous other characteristics of the electron (Ghosh, et al., 2013). Bibliography Dial, K., Riddley,...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Physical Chemistry Lab Report
...Quantitative Determination of Cu and Pb in Brass Alloy Partner’s TA’s Sample ID Introduction Primarily, the main purpose of this lab experiment involved quantitative determination of heavy metals in the brass alloy, specifically copper and lead metals. In the context of material chemistry, determining the quantitative composition of alloys is significant in evaluating the actual properties of an alloy; hence deducing the most suitable uses of the material in either mechanical or chemical applications. Brass is a widely used alloy comprising mainly of copper and zinc. In an effort to enhance certain properties of the brass alloy, traces of metals like lead are occasionally added. Technically, incorporation of lead into the...
7 Pages(1750 words)Lab Report
Physical Chemistry Lab Report
...and produces a population of excited states [Ru(bpy)3]2+. Without a quencher, these population can disappear radioactively. But by use of the different concentrations of the quencher, the trends can be clearly seen on the graphs above. Conclusion The luminescence quenching was successful. The quenching compounds of phenothiazine (PTZ) and N, N, N’, N’- tetramethly-p- phenylenediamine (TMPD) produced outstanding results. Further experiments on luminescence quenching using other organic and inorganic quenchers will provide a better understanding of the principle of luminescence. Acknowledgments References 1. Kostova, I. Ruthenium complexes as anticancer agents. Current medicinal chemistry, 2006 2. Kalyanasundaram, K....
7 Pages(1750 words)Lab Report
Physical Chemistry Lab Report
.... The sensitivity of a luminescence based oxygen sensor is influenced by the properties of both the luminescent material and the oxygen permeable encapsulating medium. The natural lifetime of the excited state, τ0, also depends on the encapsulating medium. It is governed by the inherent physical and chemical properties of the materials used. Selectivity of a sensor is its ability to sense a radiation free from interference. Response time is a measure of how quickly the maximum signal change is achieved with UV changes. In addition, reversibility, long term stability and size are other factors influencing the overall performance of a UV oxygen sensor. It is important to note is the downward curvature in the Stern-Volmer...
7 Pages(1750 words)Lab Report
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic Physical chemistry for FREE!
Contact Us