Although some efforts have focused on fluorocarbons as substitutes for blood, the oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen-releasing capacity, coupled with the ability to absorb and release carbon dioxide, has not…
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Since then, blood fractionation has led to a more focused form of delivering blood components which helps to refine treatment and improve outcomes (Fuh).
Although some patients may need units of whole blood (in such applications as splenectomy, where a lot of blood loss can be expected), many patients need to have a supplement to some function which blood supplies. Those who are chronic bleeders, or suffering from shock-induced bleeding due to loss of platelets, may be helped by an infusion of packed platelets. The same is true for patients suffering from thrombocytopenia due to disease, such as a major infection (like septicemia) or leukemia. Those patients who are anemic (again due to trauma, but also due to certain forms of anemia or leukemia) may benefit from the addition of packed red blood cells.
In the field, soldiers who have bled a lot due to trauma may receive packed red blood cells plus Ringer’s solution as a substitute for whole blood transfusions. This is mainly due to the fact that packed red blood cells are easier to store and deliver than whole blood, particularly in a battlefield situation.
Another factor which has made blood transfusion continue to be well-used is the growing list of infectious organisms which are tested in donated blood, and safe donor practices. This began in the 1970’s with screening for type-B hepatitis, and was extended in the 1980’s to hepatitis A, hepatitis C, AIDS virus (HTLV or HIV), and a series of additional viruses, both antigens (viral coats or cores) and antibodies to those viruses. While antibody and antigen tests have eliminated most of the danger of transmitting viral or bacterial infection, there is a gap between infection with some diseases, and their recognition through tests. AIDS tests, for example, do not detect antibodies for several weeks after initial infection (as they can hide out in the T-cells). For this
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Upon pregnancy confirmation, plans for prenatal care must be discussed, among them being the choice of caregiver. The initial prenatal visit should take place during the first trimester, and for coverage of all pertinent information, more than one visit is necessary.
The respiratory system is the system which primarily supports exchange of essential gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide within the respiratory organs. The respiratory system includes various processes which eventually allow the delivery of much needed oxygen into the cells of the body.
be seen in the hip, the knee and the neck respectively as the player swings his foot, straightens his leg and turns his head to follow the trajectory of the ball. How these joints work, including the muscles involved and the exact movements produced, will be discussed
ion of circulatory and respiratory functions or irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain including brainstem that controls cardiorespiratory functions. As a result, life is continuation of cardiorespiratory and brain functions without any aids.
Of four basic
Inherited structural changes in the bony structure of the ear could lead to blockage of the eustachian tube in the ear allowing for bacterial growth. The other possibility is HIV infection transmitted from the mother.
At high altitudes Sao2 is reduced. Breathing rate increases to enhance the volume of air breathed in per minute to reduce the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2) in the alveoli of the lungs. The reduction in Pco2 causes the
On about the 13th day, the luteinizing hormone, together with the follicle-stimulating hormone surges upward with the release of an ovum (ovulation) by day 14. In the ovary, the remnant of the maturing follicle now becomes
The heart and muscular system are classified as muscle tissue. Nerves as well as epithelial membranes are appropriately made up of nerve tissue membranes. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the tissues of the body as well as elaborate on their
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