StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...

Treatment and Prevention of Hepatitis C in Adult Population - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Hepatitis C is the most common blood-borne viral illness in the United States and Hepatitis C virus (HCV), first identified in 1989, is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, and ultimately death from cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is most prevalent among injection drug users, particularly homeless adults, and further spread of infection occurs through new injection drug users who share infected injection equipments, because HCV is more transmissible by blood…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER94.8% of users find it useful
Treatment and Prevention of Hepatitis C in Adult Population
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Treatment and Prevention of Hepatitis C in Adult Population"

Download file to see previous pages Since the transmission of HCV is similar to HIV and IDU is the primary risk factor for HCV infection, and coinfection of these two blood borne diseases cause morbidity and mortality, harm reduction approach and the strategies that addresses the social and economic harms that impact an individual, community, or society are paramount in preventing the epidemic.
Hepatitis C is the major cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer in the United States and the identification of Hepacivirus of the family Flaviviridae in 1989 led to an explosion of research and development of specific tests for detecting anti-HCV and HCV RNA as well as recognizing it as a common cause of chronic liver disease. (Chapter 5: Viral Hepatitis, p. 61). According to WHO estimates there are "about 180 million people, some 3% of the world's population, are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), 130 million of whom are chronic HCV carriers at risk of developing liver cirrhosis and/or liver cancer" and three to four million persons are newly infected each year, making HCV a "viral time bomb". It is also estimated that 3.9 million Americans are infected with HCV, with 'prevalence rates as high as 8-10% in African Americans'. The route of HCV transmission is mainly through injectable drug use that account for nearly 90% of new infection, as well as through blood transfusion and perinatal infection. (WHO2). (Initiative for vaccine Research (IVR). 2008). It is estimated that there are 1-2 million homeless youth in the United States and a national study of homeless youths found that "68% are 15-17 years old; 57% are Caucasians; 17% African American; 15% Hispanic; and 12% from other ethnic origins" (Nyamathi et al, 2005). It is found that approximately 16-25% of those infected with HCV are co-infected with HIV, and due to shared risk factors HIV/HCV co-infection is common among homeless and urban poor. Edlin & Carden (2006) argue that though HCV is four times more prevalent than HIV infection and viral transmission is uncontrolled among IDUs with 'incidence rates ranging from 16% to 42% per year' the efforts of the US government to "control this pandemic have largely ignored the population in whom its biology and epidemiology are being played out with the most devastating effects." (Edlin & Carden, 2008).
The Disease: Its detection and symptoms
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver and its symptoms include jaundice, dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and pain. There are five major types of hepatitis viruses, named A, B,C, D, and E type, of which A and E are caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water, and "hepatitis B, C, and D usually occur as a result of parenteral contact with infected blood fluids." (Hepatitis. 2008). HCV infection is categorized into acute and chronic and specific symptoms in the acute stage are nausea and vomiting, fatigue, loss of appetite, fever, head ache, and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Treatment and Prevention of Hepatitis C in Adult Population Essay”, n.d.)
Treatment and Prevention of Hepatitis C in Adult Population Essay. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1533570-treatment-and-prevention-of-hepatitis-c-in-adult-population
(Treatment and Prevention of Hepatitis C in Adult Population Essay)
Treatment and Prevention of Hepatitis C in Adult Population Essay. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1533570-treatment-and-prevention-of-hepatitis-c-in-adult-population.
“Treatment and Prevention of Hepatitis C in Adult Population Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1533570-treatment-and-prevention-of-hepatitis-c-in-adult-population.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Treatment and Prevention of Hepatitis C in Adult Population

Hepatitis C

... for the detection of antibodies against hepatitis C virus. The antibodies for hepatitis C virus take three to six weeks to appear after the attack of virus. In those individuals who have poor immunity, the antiobodies against hepatits C virus do not develop and the serological blood test will be negative. In those immunocompromised patients RNA testing should be done for detecting the the hepatits C virus. Raised levels of ALT (alanin transferases) and AST (aspartate transferases) are found in liver enzymes test (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Robbins et al 2005). Treatment: Nowadays the medications for the hepatitis C viral infection are pegylated interferon-alpha-2a and ribavirin. The combination of these two antiviral drugs...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Diabetes Prevention in Undiagnosed Adult Population of Vulnerable Groups

...Diabetes Prevention in Undiagnosed Adult Population of Vulnerable Groups Inserts His/Her Inserts Grade Inserts Tutor's Name 26 June 2008 Diabetes Prevention in Undiagnosed Adult Population of Vulnerable Groups In the United States elimination of health disparities is one of the two goals established for the health of the nation in Healthy People 2010, because American society believe that people are its most valuable resources and that by protecting and promoting the health of its members, the best interests of society will be served. Health status among population groups differ according to their socio-economic status (SES), aboriginal identity, and gender and geographic locations resulting in health disparities. Lack of financial...
13 Pages(3250 words)Essay

Prevention of Hypertension in Adult Population of America

...Prevention of Hypertension in Adult Population of America Inserts His/Her Inserts Grade Inserts Tutor's Name 4 July 2008 Prevention of Hypertension in Adult Population of America Hypertension is an important contributor to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, and there is steady increase of persons receiving treatment for hypertension, during the past four decades, that led to reduction in hypertension, and thereby incidence of associated cardiovascular disorders. Approximately "50 million Americans suffer from hypertension", and it is one of the prime risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases, which are leading causes of death among people under the age of 60 in most countries. (Focus on cardiovascular disease, 2007...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

Community Assessment - Prevention of Hypertensino in adult population

...Prevention of Hypertension in Adult Population of America Inserts His/Her Inserts Grade Inserts 4July 2008 Prevention of Hypertension in Adult Population of America Hypertension is an important contributor to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, and there is steady increase of persons receiving treatment for hypertension, during the past four decades, that led to reduction in hypertension, and thereby incidence of associated cardiovascular disorders. Approximately “50 million Americans suffer from hypertension”, and it is one of the prime risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases, which are leading causes of death among people under the age of 60 in most countries. (Focus on cardiovascular disease, 2007...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Hepatitis c

It exists in six genotypes, of these genotype I is most prevalent form of HCV. Since the virus exists in different genotypes and sub-genotypes, it becomes very challenging for the development of its vaccines. HCV is not related to other hepatitis viz. hepatitis A or hepatitis B. It is grouped in the family Flaviviridae along with yellow fever virus and dengue virus. As soon as virus gains entry in the liver, it elicits immune response resulting in inflammation; protracted inflammation lays the foundation of scarring which further takes the form of cirrhosis and thus preventing liver to perform its normal functions. Such condition paves the way for liver cancer (Alter, 2000).
It is transmitted through blood especially through b...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Drugs that treat Hepatitis C

The current modality of care for treatment is the combination of peginterferon alfa and ribavirin, which produces high cure rate in selected virus genotypes only (McHutchinson, et al, 2009).
Advent of highly efficient oral agents that are selective for HCV like HCV protease inhibitors and polymerase inhibitors, bring hope for curative combinations of oral agents. It is likely that treatment recommendation for this infection will change drastically in the coming years.
These proteins are synthesized by the host cells in response to various inducers and, in turn cause biochemical modifications leading to antiviral state in cells. Three major classes of interferons with significant antiviral activities are being recognized:
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Practices and Principles of Adult Nursing

These would gradually reduce her little depression and give her more hope over her life. And also one fact should be noted that she is a 65-year-old woman, so she still has chances of recovery.

Osteoarthritis: The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases has this definition for Osteoarthritis as “ Is the most common type of arthritis, especially among older people. Sometimes it is called degenerative joint disease or osteoarthrosis. Osteoarthritis is a joint disease that mostly affects cartilage. Cartilage is the slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint. Healthy cartilage allows bones to glide over one another. It also absorbs energy from the shock of physical activity&...
9 Pages(2250 words)Assignment

Autoimmune Diseases and the Importance of Their Treatment in the Modern Society

The research should be considered as the basis (from a theory and practice perspective) of immunology as it is known today. During the years that followed the above studies, immunology was developed furthermore and many theories were stated while the methods of treatment were differentiated in order to respond to the changing living standards and styles of life. The main reason for the choice of the particular topic has been its importance for patients that suffer from one of the types of the particular disease. In fact, a study published in the Environmental Health Perspective (2003, 483) proved that “autoimmune diseases are chronic, potentially life-threatening conditions; there are more than 80 recognized autoimmune disea...
10 Pages(2500 words)Case Study

Classification of Leukemias and Diagnosis Treatment of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

The incidence of leukemias is about 10 per 100 000 per annum in all types of population. 50% of them are acute leukemias. ALL occurs at an annual rate of approximately 30 to 40 per million. There are approximately 2,400 children and adolescents younger than 20 years diagnosed with ALL each year in the United States (“Leukemia”, US NIHS). The male: female ratio is about 3:2 in acute leukemia, 2:1 in CLL and 1.3:1 in CML. CLL is rare in Chinese and related races. Though acute leukemias occur at all ages, they are lowest amongst the young and highest after 50 years of age. ALL is more incident in young children between 1-5 years. CLL and CML are mainly diseases of middle age and beyond. CML occurs between 30 and 80 years...
11 Pages(2750 words)Term Paper

The Diagnosis and Treatment of Disease Outline: The Roles of the Imaging and Treatment Modalities

Dramatic developments in the field of science and technology have provided newer and enhanced diagnostic tools to make arrive at a more precise diagnosis on one side and on the other side given new meaning to the traditional treatment modalities, as well as creating new treatment modalities. 

Peering inside the human body for a better understanding of any abnormalities within that are the cause for illness in a patient had remained an unrealized need until the advent of the x-ray imaging technique. Since then advances in the x-ray imaging techniques have led to new imaging modalities to remove the inadequacies that were experienced through the use of mere x-rays. Fluoroscopy is one such development in imaging modal...
7 Pages(1750 words)Term Paper

Counseling and Methadone in Treatment of Substance Abuse

... and implications for treatment and research. Science and Practice Perspectives, 2, 43-51. Carroll, K. (1998). A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach: Treating Cocaine Addiction. Rockville: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Carroll, J. J. (1999). Compatibility of Adlerian Theory and Practice with the Philosophy and Practices of Alcoholics Anonymous. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling 19(2), 50-61. Carroll, K., Rounsaville, B. & Keller, D. (1991). Relapse prevention strategies for the treatment of cocaine abuse. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 17(3), 249-265. Carroll, K., Rounsaville, B., Nich, C., Gordon, L., Wirtz, P. & Gawin, F. (1994). One-year follow-up of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence: delayed...
10 Pages(2500 words)Term Paper

Community Assessment for Treatment and Prevention of Hepatitis C in Adult Population

With the increased awareness and advancement in research, involving human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, clinical expertise exists for the prevention and management of chronic viral diseases like HCV among injection drug users, since the mode of infection and behavior of vulnerable population for both HIV and HCV contagion are identical. Since the transmission of HCV is similar to HIV and IDU is the primary risk factor for HCV infection, and coinfection of these two blood-borne diseases cause morbidity and mortality, harm reduction approach and the strategies that address the social and economic harms that impact an individual, community, or society are paramount in preventing the epidemic.

Hepatitis C is the ma...
11 Pages(2750 words)Term Paper

Ryanairs Staff Treatment and Motivation Problems

To prove that not all of the public accusations against the way Ryanair handles its employees is true; a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods will be utilized using research survey questionnaires. Aiming to strengthen the research survey results, an interview with Ryanair’s human resource assistant manager, customer service supervisor, duty manager, and duty controller was conducted to enable the researcher to gain a better insight with regards to employees’ views on labor unions and the type of motivational strategies used by the company.
Ryanair is an Irish low-cost airline with its head office in Dublin and its main operational base at London Stansted Airport. It is Europes major low-cos...
43 Pages(10750 words)Dissertation

The Negative Impact of Hepatitis C

..., the most important and potent tool for prevention of this disease is in the effective detection, diagnosis and treatment right from its initial stages (reference- no ref). Very limited insight of the nature, prevention and cure of Hepatitis C is because of inadequate or inappropriate information of this disease (reference- no ref.). Hepatitis C patients encounter blatant stigmatization not only from the society but also from the healthcare environment (reference-no ref.). Therefore it is almost crucial that Healthcare providers and other helpers receive proper guidance and understanding of the infection of HCV, in order to treat the patient in a much better manner. They also need to have knowledge about the history of the patient...
8 Pages(2000 words)Term Paper

Treatment of Congenital Deformities of the Talip

Clubfoot is rarely detected in ultrasonography before the 16th week of gestation. Four types of talipes have been identified. The most common one being talipes equine varus, commonly known as clubfoot. In this condition, the foot points down and twists inwards at the ankle joint. The other three forms of talipes are less common and are known as talipes equanovalgus in which the footpoints out and down, talipes calcanovarus in which the foot points inwards and up, and talipes calcanovalgus in which the foot points inwards and down.

Talipes is a complicated condition and its management depends on the degree of rigidity, associated abnormalities and secondary muscular changes (Morcuende et al 2006) In the UK, prior to 2001...
8 Pages(2000 words)Assignment

Depression in Children: Prevention and Treatment

Various theories have been put forward for the development of depression. It is important to understand the causes of depression in children so that proper intervention can be provided in proper time and in an appropriate manner.
According to the Cognitive Theory of Depression, negative thinking alters the perceptions, interpretations, and memory of the personal world and leads to the development of depressive symptoms. The Parent-Child Model for Socialization theory proposes that intrusive support from the parents to those children who are constantly involved in the negative self-evaluative process causes depression The Tripartite Model of Depression and Anxiety theorizes that depression is characterized by the low positive...
6 Pages(1500 words)Literature review

Various Treatment of Young People in the Criminal Justice System

The ways in which the treatment of young offenders is differentiated from that of adult offenders are also presented using appropriate literature; particular reference is made to the role of Young Offender Institutions (YOI). It is proved that the current criminal justice for young offenders in the UK is not effective, despite the measures taken by the government for securing the rehabilitation of these individuals. On the other hand, the full alignment of the treatment of young offenders with that of the adult offenders, as this practice is in progress in the UK, will not resolve the problems related to the rehabilitation of young offenders. The alteration of the rules of the existing criminal justice system without eliminating t...
7 Pages(1750 words)Coursework
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Treatment and Prevention of Hepatitis C in Adult Population for FREE!

Contact Us