Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Effect of Exercise on Cancer Related Fatigue in Patients with Breast Cancer - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Expressions like "bone tired", "exhausted", and "against the wall" are descriptions used by cancer patients due to overwhelming feeling of fatigue (Ferrell, Grant, Dean, Funk, & Ly, 1996). In United States, there are approximately 1.4 million people expected to be diagnosed with cancer in 2006 (American Cancer Society, 2006)…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.9% of users find it useful
Effect of Exercise on Cancer Related Fatigue in Patients with Breast Cancer
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Effect of Exercise on Cancer Related Fatigue in Patients with Breast Cancer"

Download file to see previous pages The mainstay of breast cancer care is local therapy consisting of surgery along with systemic adjuvant therapy, which includes chemotherapy, hormonal or a combination therapy. Besides major advances in managing both early and locally advanced breast cancer, patients still have to deal with severe side effects of fatigue during adjuvant therapy resulting in substantial impact on patients' quality of life (Markes, Brockow and Resch, 2006).
Most cancer patients would say that fatigue is a major obstacle to functioning normally (Portenoy & Itri, 1999). Fatigue is a distinctive, dominant symptom in patients with cancer, that impacts life functional ability and occupational status. The fatigue diminishes the patient's ability to do both physical and mental tasks, as it has physical, affective, and cognitive components of the symptom (Dalakas, Mock and Hawkins, 1998). This kind of fatigue is referred as cancer-related fatigue or CRF.
Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) as defined by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network "is an unusual persistent, subjective sense of tiredness related to cancer treatment that interferes with usual functioning" (NCCN, 2005).
Since fatigue is not directly observable in most of its forms, its importance and treatment are often overlooked (Newell, Sanson-Fisher, Girgis, & Bonaventura, 1998; Tanghe, Evers, & Parodaems, 1998). Patients suffering from cancer-related fatigue may have difficulty adhering to and completing treatment regimens. Fatigue has also been identified as the main reason patients withdraw from clinical trials. The quality of life of individuals experiencing cancer-related fatigue may be less than satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to review literatures on the effect of exercise on fatigue in women with breast cancer and make recommendations for nursing practice and health care providers to improve care of individuals suffering from cancer-related fatigue (Visovsky and Schneider, 2003).
The following electronic databases were searched Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, Medline, Highbeam and Pubmed. Terms related to breast cancer, exercise, fatigue, cancer-related fatigue and publication type (e.g., random controlled clinical trial) were used in searching. This search strategy was modified as necessary for each database.
Fatigue has been reported by 60% to 100% of patients undergoing treatment for cancer and has been identified as a research priority by the Oncology Nursing Society for a decade (Mock, Pickett, Ropka, Poniatowski and Drake, 2001). Cancer-related fatigue differs from normal tiredness by its sudden appearance, its overwhelming nature, and its refractory response to rest. While oncology nurses are well aware that fatigue is a prevalent complaint in cancer patients, the best way to assess and treat this debilitating symptom is less clear (Clark, 2001).
Fatigue is one of if not the most common complaints of patients with cancer. The etiology for CRF is unknown, but is theorized to be caused from activation of proinflammatory cytokines in response to the tumor such as interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor, have been implicated in the development of cancer-related fatigue resulting in diminished skeletal muscle protein stores. This reduction in muscle protein, also ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Effect of Exercise on Cancer Related Fatigue in Patients with Breast Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Effect of Exercise on Cancer Related Fatigue in Patients With Breast Essay)
“Effect of Exercise on Cancer Related Fatigue in Patients With Breast Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Effect of Exercise on Cancer Related Fatigue in Patients with Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

...? Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the cancerous uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the breast tissues. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the American women, which is one of the primary factors of cancer deaths after lung cancer, and it accounts for 15 percent of all cancer deaths in American women (Dow, p.3).There are a number of factors are associated with the cause of breast cancer in women. Proceeding age, family history of breast cancer, and extended reproductive phase are the some major aspect related to this disease. Up to 10 percent of breast cancer in western countries like US, is due to strong genetic predisposition (Dixon, p.25). Doctors can detect breast cancer initially after approximately three years after...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Breast Cancer

The first reference to breast cancer appeared more than 3,500 years ago in ancient Greece (Aronowitz, 2007). The condition was described accurately as a bulging tumor of the breast of which no cure was known. Between 460 B.C. and 200 A.D., physicians from Hippocrates to Galen made efforts to understand the structure of a cancer tumor, noting especially the black fluid that is released when a tumor bursts. Since there were no methods to slow the progress of breast cancer, it became a disease that affected the entire body, making treatment options like surgery not a viable possibility. More breakthroughs were made during the 17th and 18th centuries, during which theories were debunked and others were formed to gain a better underst...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is an ever-increasing deadly healthcare concern amid human beings along with other mammals. The women are determined to be the prime victims of this disease, though male can also suffer from this medical condition. In the United States, breast cancer is found to be the second most important reason behind cancer related death amid women. According to American Cancer Society (2012), in the year 2011, around 230,480 fresh cases related to breast cancer was diagnosed amid women. Moreover, around 39,520 cases related to death were observed in 2011 amid women. Conversely, nearly 2000 cases of breast cancer were anticipated amid men in 2011. Thus, women in the US are highly affected due to this ever-increasing disease. Fig...
3 Pages(750 words)Admission/Application Essay

Exercise in Cancer patients

Therefore, in comparison to previous recommendations for those diagnosed with chronic diseases, participating in certain physical activities can bring about many advantages and benefits for cancer patients. Background Information Cancer and cancer treatments have the effects of inflicting the feeling of tiredness among its patients. Cancer patients are thus encouraged by medical doctors to regularly exercise since exercises are considered safe and significant in improving their physical conditions and quality of life. However, some types of cancer and treatments do not allow exercising, thus stressing the importance of proper consultations with doctors prior to or in the course of the training programs. Medical reports indicate t...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Breast Cancer

...Breast Cancer: Research Proposal Introduction Transcription, in its simplest conceptualization is the synthesis of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) from a DNAtemplate (McClean, 1998). Whether it is prokaryotic or eukaryotic, it first undergoes the process of initiation where there is a binding of RNA polymerase to double-strand DNA; then the second process follows called elongation where there is a development of a short stretch of DNA which is mostly of a single-strand (McClean, 1998); the last stage is the termination stage where there is a recognition of the transcription termination sequence (McClean, 1998). The RNA polymerase needs other proteins in order to carry out the transcription process. Ensuring that transcription is adequately...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Cancer - Care for Breast Cancer Patients

Cancer - Care for Breast Cancer Patients World over, incidence of Cancer is increasing day by day. Various studies and research show that Breast Cancer is the second most commons type of Cancer in Women, followed by Cancer of the Cervix, while the first place goes to Lung Cancer.
Risk Factors: The occurrence of Cancer in older women from the age of sixty and above is more frequent. Research done by Dell, show that being female and increasing age, adds to the risk of getting cancer. The number of women in various age groups of "age 30 to 35, the incidence of breast cancer is 27.9 cases per 100,000 women; by age 80, the number rises to 412 cases per 100,000 women." (2005, Dell, Deena Damsky RN).
It is also found that girls,...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Breast Cancer

There can be some environmental causes too such as “women who received radiation therapy to the upper body for treatment of Hodgkin disease before 30 years of age have a significantly higher rate of breast cancer than the general population” (WebMD Inc., 2009).
1) Genes can be defective in some individuals. Genes which are more prone to cancer are BRCA1 and BRCA2. Naturally, these are “tumor suppressor genes” (American Cancer Society, 2009) because they produce proteins that hinder the growth of cancerous cells, but when they get mutated, they cause the development of cancer. Thus, if a person inherits defective genes from his parents, he is more likely to develop breast cancer. Also, if one has a relative who has cancer of an...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Breast cancer

... and vegetables of at least 5 servings per day, and maintaining current weight or losing weight, as needed (Burns, Jacobsen, Loftus, & Andrykowski, 2012). Finally, as emphasized by Ravichandran, Al-Hamdan, & Mohamed (2011), “early breast detection through mammogram, clinical breast examination, and breast self-examination is critical in reducing breast-cancer related morbidity and mortality” (p. 138). For curable and more advanced stages, there were identified ongoing medical researches that aim to increase the efficacy of recommended interventions in the hope of alleviating the side effects of more aggressive treatments, as required. 2. Most Effective Intervention for Breast Cancer Prevention As explicitly stated by Field, et al. (2011...
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper

Breast cancer

..., genetic testing will lead to tension within family members because the results might reveal a family’s information on another individual related to the one been tested (Halyard 15). Question five Other mutation that may lead to breast cancer Mutation of BRCA2 and other genes might also lead to an inherited cancer of the breast. These genes include, the ATM which repairs damaged DNA, TP53 which aids in the production of a protein known as p53, CHEK2, PTEN, CDH1 and STK11 (Halyard 17). What is the carrier rate for the gene among Ashkenazi Jewish men and women? According to research done by scientists and doctors, the Jewish men tend to be less carries in comparison to women (Saunders 18). It is not easy for find a male carrier...
3 Pages(750 words)Assignment

Breast Cancer

ost cases, the onset of breast cancer does not cause pain and has very little noticeable symptoms .When it progresses; some symptoms start to show up including lymph or a small thickening near or in the breast. Other symptoms include change in the size of the breast and nipple discharge. The breast becomes tender or turns inwards and causes skin irritation. Some breasts have some form of dimpling and scaliness.
However having one or more of these symptoms does not necessary mean, that one has breast cancer. Cancerous tumors sometimes invade surrounding tissues and often appear in the liver, bones, brain, or lungs. People should know the symptoms of breast cancer to ensure early diagnosis. Other symptoms include change in skin...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper

Various Aspects Related To HIV and the Deadly Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

HIV is defined as the human immunodeficiency virus, as its infection causes a severe depletion in the host immune response. Its earlier names include HTLV (human T-cell leukaemia virus) type III, LAV (lymphadenopathy-associated virus), ARV (AIDS-associated retrovirus)(Pratt, 1995). The infection by this virus leads to a depressed immune state that the person becomes susceptible to infection caused by microorganisms that are otherwise the normal inhabitants of a healthy human body.

According to UNAIDS (2006) report, the total number of people in the world living with HIV infection has escalated to 39.5 million, which includes 2.5 million children. However, it seems that the disease is more severe in developing countries...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Greenhouse Effect

Approximately a third of it is reflected back into space. Specific atmospheric gases serve in much the same way as does the glass of a greenhouse, thus the terminology. These gases allow sunlight to penetrate then trap some of the solar energy which heats the earth (Breuer, 1980). It is a delicate balance and because these greenhouse gases have been artificially augmented by man-made sources, more build up in the atmosphere has occurred thus trapping more of the sun’s energy and reflecting less back into space. This occurrence is causing the earth to warm.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent of the greenhouse gases. Trees absorb CO2 and when they die, CO2 is restored to the atmosphere. The clearing of forests by...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Vietnam War Effect on Youth of America

The USA got involved in the Vietnam War as an ally of southern Vietnam.
Southern Vietnam was fighting against communist-led northern Vietnam and it was quite like a civil war. When the USA stretched itself into this civil war the soldiers were hard to motivate as they were bereft of patriotism, which they would have shown if it was a war directly against the USA, and fought to save national interest. After reaching Vietnam they felt more uncomfortable due to the tropical climate and the unknown topography. (Herring, 1979)

Their body kept on fighting while their mind got occasionally lost in their motherland in the arms of their beloved. Each war leaves a scar on the mind of a soldier and this scar is much deeper th...
8 Pages(2000 words)Assignment

Why Are Performance Management Such Closely Related Aspects of Human Resource Management

Performance management systems make use of the fact that performance is increased on the part of all concerned and there is no shortfall as concerns to commitment, dedication, and devotion when at work. (Bilgin, 2007)

What this performance management system does is to ensure that the right people get the bonuses, incentives and so on as well as point out the ones who have fallen short on the company’s expectations over a period of time. This would help in giving them rewards and incentives which will eventually make one and all happy at the end. Also, this will continue their desire to achieve more and more within a specified period of time and thus come into the good books of the company. In return, they can be g...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Cancer: a Terminal Disease

Only visible progress is observed in the case of breast cancer even though, it is detected in the early stage (3). There are many reasons and characteristic of cancer which makes it incurables some of them are as follows:
Most of the human diseases were classified under two broad categories; 1) genetic diseases and 2) environmental diseases. In genetic diseases, mutation or loss of function in any of the vital genes leads to disease condition and they are generally cured by artificial supplementation of a vital component. For example, in sickle cell anemia where a patient having mutation in both copies of the hemoglobin gene leads to sickle-shaped RBC. The only permanent cure for this disease is bone marrow transplant and gen...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Medical Radiographic Technique for Dealing with the Pediatric Patients

This poses a challenge in pediatric radiographic investigations. Obtaining quality radiographs on pediatric patients can be a challenge. Minimizing radiation dose in pediatric imaging is a crucial issue that has been emphasized and reemphasized in recent years1.
Diagnostic radiation overexposure can cause radiation skin reactions and acute radiation sickness. It can also lead to systemic reactions that may lead to disturbances of normal functional processes, such as, radiation pneumonitis. It is known to have carcinogenic effects and genetic effects2. However, it is also to be considered that the dose required to produce genetic or carcinogenic effects are virtually precluded by modern radiographic apparatus and special techn...
13 Pages(3250 words)Assignment

The Effect of Mass Media on Latinos' Self Image

The willful perversion of facts relating to the representation of Latinos in the U.S. media is disgraceful, inconsiderate and extremely misleading and hence calls for immediate attention to prevent the degradation of a particular section of the society since their depiction and imagery in mass media plays a significant role in shaping their social identity and governs their self-esteem. Television and films both being dominant forms of media persistently depict racial stereotypes which are largely false representations of the
According to U.S. Census (2000), Latinos are the fastest-growing ethnic communities in the United States constituting almost 12.5% of the population of which merely 3 – 4% of the Latino population...
7 Pages(1750 words)Term Paper

The Effect of Democracy on Chinese Development

Any country first needs to go through economic liberalization and political liberalization before finally settling into a stable democratic situation. Democracy should not at any one point be viewed as if it were socialism, but should be seen as a means of promoting economic development through accountability and protection of individual lawful rights and interests...accountability in the sense that the respective leaders are able to fight corruption, enhance social harmony, strengthen public trust and more importantly empower government institutions that are directly in touch with the people (Liu, 2008, p.1-2). Owing to the Chinese well informed and affluent society on top of having a very dynamic economy, the political change wh...
7 Pages(1750 words)Coursework

Effect of Corporations Moving Jobs Overseas on the Economy

The issue comes into focus, whenever there are political, economic debates or talks about H1B visa limits. The economic slowdown has further led to the intensification of these debates. But, despite apprehensions from different quarters, neither the companies nor the government has said a final word on the trend. Increasing levels of competition amongst the corporate houses have been one of the key highlights of the globalization era. Be it the retail sector, the banking, the automobile, the IT-enabled services, the white goods space, etc. the companies have always been on the lookout for reaching out to more number of customers while doing everything possible to please the existing lot. Leveraging the economies of scale has prove...
8 Pages(2000 words)Coursework

Breast Cancer Pathophysiology

According to Dr. Belen Hurle, genetic marker means “a DNA sequence with a known physical location on a chromosome. Genetic markers can help link an inherited disease with the responsible gene. DNA segments close to each other on a chromosome tend to be inherited together. Genetic markers are used to track the inheritance of a nearby gene that has not yet been identified, but whose approximate location is known. The genetic marker itself may be a part of a gene or may have no known function.” In case of breast cancer, the genetic marker identifies specific DNAs that predispose one to develop breast cancer. Medicine Net, Inc. reported that “two of these genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been identified (and prominently...
8 Pages(2000 words)Case Study
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Effect of Exercise on Cancer Related Fatigue in Patients with Breast Cancer for FREE!

Contact Us