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Cancer Abnormal Production: Types of Malignant Tumors - Essay Example

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An essay "Cancer Abnormal Production: Types of Malignant Tumors" claims that Neoplasm is defined by Willis as “Abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissue and persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of the stimuli…
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Cancer Abnormal Production: Types of Malignant Tumors
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"Cancer Abnormal Production: Types of Malignant Tumors"

Download file to see previous pages There are many different types of cancers originating in the human body owing to the different types of cells in the body. A few examples of cancers are skin cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer. Cancer is an abnormal multiplication of the cells which may originate in any cell of the human body owing to the lack regulatory processes and this pathological state can be treated by different treatment modalities (Kumar et al 2005). Under the microscope, cancer cells reveal different structural characteristics because of which they can be differentiated from the normal cells of the body. They are pleomorphic in nature, which means that they have a tendency to have a variable size and shape which is not in accordance with the normal cells. The cancer cells have different size and different shapes. Most of the cancer cells have large nuclei in comparison to the surrounding normal tissue cells and the nuclei of the cancerous cells contain abnormal number of chromosomes, a condition known as aneuploidy. The aneuploidy may occur due to a mutation or deletion of a chromosome. The cell membrane of the cancer cells produces surface enzymes which have the ability to damage the basement membrane of tissues. This characteristic assists in the spread of the cancer from its site of origin to the surrounding non-cancerous cells and damages them as well. The cancer cells show increased rate of mitosis. Mitosis is the process of the reproduction of the new cells and hence the cancer increases in its size and crosses its boundaries to spread out of its confines. The cancer cells have differences in metabolism in comparison to normal cells. Their metabolism is more anaerobic and therefore they may even combat hypoxic conditions. The cancer cells have the propensity to spread from the primary cancer site from where the tumor begins to grow to the adjacent normal tissues. This phenomenon is referred to Invasion. The invasion is promoted by multiple factors which include the formation of surface enzymes by cancerous cells, the pressure exerted by the malignant cells as well as the rapid multiplication of these cells. The cancer cells produce destructive enzymes which break away the basement membrane of the vascular supply near these cells. This enables the entry of the cancer cells into the nearby blood vessels or lymph vessels. The cancer cells that enter the bloodstream then circulate in the blood throughout the body until they become static at particular points of the human body. After the cancer cells adhere to new sites which they access through the vascular supply, the process of mitosis starts in these cells and a new tumor is formed at a distant site and this cancer is referred to as a secondary tumor (Kumar et al 2005; Trahan 2001 ). The factors that elevate the danger of causing a certain disease are marked as risk factors. The risk factors for cancer are numerous and cannot be all explained by the physician but there are some factors which increase the susceptibility of cancer in some individuals. The most common of these factors are tobacco smoking as well as a few viruses and bacteria. Genes are also implicated as increasing the risk of cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are examples of these genes.  ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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