StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...
Free

Lebanon's Confessional System - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
It is difficult to establish a unified system of government when there is shared tension inside a state. In Lebanon, various religious communities were scattered throughout the country. And every person's principal loyalty was to their religious communities…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.3% of users find it useful
Lebanons Confessional System
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Lebanon's Confessional System"

How and why was Lebanon's confessional system instituted It is difficult to establish a unified system of government when there is shared tension inside a state. In Lebanon, various religious communities were scattered throughout the country. And every person's principal loyalty was to their religious communities. It is also hard to unite people with conflicting interest. Lebanon's local notables, ranging from Druze princess to Maronite merchants to Sunni landowners, ventured in promoting the interests of their clients who were also their coreligionist at the expense of other group. To bring together Lebanon's diverse religious and political groups into an organized political system that could equally distribute power as well as harmonize with the system of the neighboring Arab countries is definitely a pain. The forces pulling Lebanon apart seemed to be stronger than those of holding it together.
Initially, the objective of the French commander, General Henri Gouraud in proclaiming the creation of Greater Lebanon is to safeguard the Maronite community. These are Christians that has the largest religious community in the state. The self-proclaimed protector of the Christian communities in Lebanon wanted to make sure these Maronites won't be absorbed into a Syrian Muslim state. And to ensure they will be dependent of France, several predominantly Muslim areas were added to this new state. Hence, the Maronites do not compose the majority of the population.
Political power was based on sectarian affiliations. The Maronites, dependent on French backing to keep their political dominance, assumed political and economic supremacy in their homeland and accepted the Franco-Mediterranean cultural orientation in consequence turned their back to the Arab world. On the contrary, the Sunni Muslims wanted unity with Syria and looked upon the Arabs for their source of cultural identity.
The conflict appeared to be endless. Lebanon, dependent of France, does not have good relationship with the Arabs. Adding up the existing political customs and the geographical distribution of various religious communities having their own statutes and beliefs, unity seems to be far reaching off. However, for Lebanon to survive as a state, a political system should be instituted in which all of these opposing interests could be accommodated.
A constitution for creating the Lebanese republic was approved in 1926. The constitution make possible for a single chamber of deputies to be elected on the basis of religious representation. The president, which will be elected by the chamber, has the authority to appoint the prime minister and the cabinet. It is unlikely that France will give off their power thus remained in control of Lebanese foreign relations and military affairs. In the end, Lebanon has very little freedom to control their domestic affairs because of the ever-present network of French advisers within each ministry.
A nation divided will definitely not prosper. And Lebanon sure wants independence. Realizing that the state could not survive without Muslim-Christian cooperation, al-Khuri, a Maronite politician, sought to build alliances with the Muslims. He formed a united front against France so Muslims and Christians would link the gap that separated them and institute mutual interests within the structure of the state. His political organization, known as the Constitutional Bloc, was actively aiming for a complete independence. So in 1936, French and Lebanese representatives agreed on a treaty that guarantees "the fair representation of all the country's sects in the government and high administration". Hence, a confessional system was instituted, which is committed to the construction and implementation of "orthodoxy or accepted belief" within each known religious community.
William L. Cleveland and Martin Bunton, A History of the Modern Middle East, 2009. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Lebanon's Confessional System Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1530182-lebanons-confessional-system
(Lebanon'S Confessional System Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1530182-lebanons-confessional-system.
“Lebanon'S Confessional System Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1530182-lebanons-confessional-system.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Lebanon's Confessional System

Alcoholism in Lebanon

...? ALCOHOLISM Outline A) Introduction. B) The heredity. C) Reasons of alcoholism. D) Lebanon. C) Conclusion. Foreword: This research paper analyzes the reasons of alcoholism and investigates the situation with alcoholism rates in Lebanon. Thesis: Alcoholism has always been the factor that ruined families, lives and even generations.. Alcoholism has always been the factor that ruined families, lives and even generations. According to scientists the majority of cases are connected with hereditary deviations in genes. For about 50% of all cases of alcohol addiction are connected with heredity (Woody 2002). The genes that are responsible for alcohol addiction interact with one another as well as with the environment. Different variations...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Development and Information System s

This has had an effect on my development as I tend to demonstrate similar characteristics when found in situations that lead to anger in me and I overreact sometimes to somewhat minor events. In addition, my social environment has also had an impact on my development as exemplified by the fact that I grew up in a tough neighbourhood and most of the friends that I surrounded myself with were filled with resentment and took every chance to always cause trouble or start a fight and this also grew in me by the mere association with my peers of the same character. There hence cannot be a clear and definitive line between heredity and environmental factors that separates then and gives superiority to one aspect as more responsible in i...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Lebanon

...Annotated Bibliography Barakat, H. (1988) Toward a viable Lebanon. Washington, DC: Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, Georgetown Barakat adopts a sociological analysis of Lebanon's ethnic and religious composition for the purposes of investigating whether or not unification is possible. While he highlights the fact that Lebanon is comprised of multiple religious sects, he does not believe that religion divides Lebanon. Instead, divisions are a consequence of blood ties and loyalties. The Lebanese give their allegiance to their blood ties and define themselves in terms of familial affiliation. As such, there is, for example, no unity among the Druze or the Maronites but divisions within these religious sects dependant upon blood...
4 Pages(1000 words)Annotated Bibliography

OH&S-Your organisation's OH&S system

...My organization's OH&S system My organization, Swann Communications, deals in manufacturing and marketing of a variety of cameras. Since every manufacturing step is automated there is no chance of any major occupational hazards. Earlier the main risk was during the cutting of lenses but modern technology has enabled the workers to cut the lenses mechanically, which is totally hazard proof. Still, the company is very dedicated towards the safety and well being of its employees. Both physical and mental healths are diligently taken care of. Keeping the economic growth, economic reality and technical progress in mind, the organization follows the 'machine bureaucracy system'. In this system the employees are expected to do as they are told...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

The Second Lebanon War

...The Second Lebanon War During the Second Lebanon War between Hezbollah military and Israel forces, there was widespread damage to civilian infrastructure, including to the main airport of Beirut. War causalities also included killing of innocent civilians. The war was started by Hezbollah militants, who had fired rockets at Israel border as a diversionary technique to attack patrolling Israel soldiers. The media had lapped up the war that had generated mass reaction all through the world. A freelance Lebanese photo-journalist had taken photos of the war torn civilian outputs. The photos had generated mass hysteria against the Israel attacks which had damaged civilian places and displaced millions of the people from their home. Reuter...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Child Labor in Lebanon

.... They also set up a labour code that put limitations on what children between 13 and 15 could do, for instance, they cannot work for more than 6 hours a day and cannot do overtime. In October 1998, the HCC drew up a strategy for the control and containment of child labour in Lebanon. Factors Hindering the fight Against Child Labour In spite of all these efforts, the incidence of child labour in Lebanon is still very high. This has a direct link with the political system of Lebanon which is very fragile (Epstein & Limage, 2008). Lebanon went to war between 1975 and 1982 and the war was a complicated one since it involved sectarian violence which reflected divisions in the Middle East as well as global divisions via the Arab-Isareli...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

The U>S Legal System

... Legal Issue and a Strong and Substantiate Argument in Support of Your Opinion Task The case is centered on two counts: counts of murder and burglary. On the count of murder, the defendant is accused of the first degree murder. First-degree murder, in most states, is an illegal killing that is both premeditated and willful, meaning that it was committed after "lying in wait" or planning for the victim. In this case, the deceased had earlier wanted to dispose of some of her diamond rings, though not clear. The defendant may have been involved in the deal and latter planned to kill her for the rings. That again introduces another crime committed – burglary. Based on the evidence provided, the defendant broke into Stella Blauvelt’s... Legal...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

Families in Lebanon

There are three characters involved in this series and involves a mother, father and their son. The son is the protagonist and cuts the figure of an audacious yet respectful child. He is also technologically savvy and sounds educated. The mother is a housewife and can be described as strict and keen to neatness. She is relatively open-minded as regarding religion rules, and this is seen when she intervenes for his son during an argument between her husband and son concerning the issue of a girlfriend. The father, on the other hand, is portrayed as a strict and conservative parent. He is the head and provider of the family. In the discussion, the major areas of interest will be on the characteristics and the structure of the family...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

Lebanon

... Lebanon Culture Lebanon culture is a composition of various civilizations culture. Lebanese culture has evolved over years and borrowed cultural practices and belief from different communities like Assyrians, Greek, Persians, Arabs, Romans, French, Crusaders and Ottoman Turks. The diverse population of Lebanon is composed of different religious and ethnic groups that have contributed to the music styles, literature, cuisine and festivals in the country. Lebanese have different ethnic, religious and linguistic practices but they share common culture. The official’s language spoken is French and Lebanese is spoken in public (Harris 45). Lebanon History Early settlement in Lebanon evidence was found in Byblos. In 5000 BC the city...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Budgetary Control and Costing System

Job costing and Process Costing are the two basic methods of costing. Job costing is suitable to industries, which manufacture or execute the work according to the specifications of the customers. Process costing is suitable to industries where production is continuous and the units produced are identical. All other methods are combinations, extensions or improvements of these basic methods.

1. JOB COSTING: It is also called specific order costing. It is adopted by industries where there is no standard product and each job or work order is different from the others. The job is done strictly according to the specifications given by the customers and usually, the job takes only a short time for completion. The purpose of...
17 Pages(4250 words)Case Study

Microprocessor System and Application

In a computer, a processor commonly involves one or more microprocessors (also acknowledged as chips), which are silvers of silicon or other substance stamped with many little electronic circuits. To perform operations on data, the computer passes electricity all the way through circuits to execute an instruction (Norton 2001.p. 5). The innovation in technology has brought a lot of facilities for us. We have better ways of life and all the facilities regarding better production and domestic tasks. Such as in the industrial production we have automatic robots that are welding, packing, moving and carrying out several other development-related tasks. These robots are pre-programmed and microprocessors based chips are controlling all...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Structure of the Educational System in Morocco and Its Capacity for Addressing the Needs of the Hospitality Industry

...Independent Research Study An investigation into the Structure of the Educational System in Morocco and its Capa for Addressing the Needs and Expectations of the Hospitality Industry in the Country Submitted by : Submitted to : Course : Date : September 29, 2009 Word Count : 3,069 words STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP “I confirm that no part of this work, except where clearly quoted and referenced, has been copied from material belonging to any person e.g. from a book, handout, another student. I am aware that it is a breach of GIHE regulations to copy the work of another without clear acknowledgement and that attempting to do so render me liable to disciplinary procedures.” ________________ Table of Contents I. Consultant’s Brief 4...
15 Pages(3750 words)Research Proposal

The Interprofessional Practice and the Health Care System

This is also the position Stone (2007) takes in the quote under discussion.
Furthermore, Stone goes on to declare that Australia has been very slow to implement this practice as compared with other countries and government agencies. One of the primary reasons is that the public policy system in Australia is quite complex and the decision-makers have not come into agreement on where to place it in the policy matrix. This leaves Interprofessional Practice and Education in the dark (or the cold) as far as strategic planning for implementation as well as placing itself within the funding cycles of the government disbursements. (Stone, 2007)
Policies are created in order to put in place how politicians and government official...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Examination of the Thyroid System

In 2006, his gallbladder was removed. He takes over-the-counter anti-histamines, as needed for allergic rhinitis symptoms.
Personal and Social History: Mr. "S" is a 73-year-old widower who usually eats the organic food produced from the animals and the fruits and vegetables on his farm. He has two to three beers in the evening after dinner every night. He weighs 235 lbs and measures 5 10" tall.

Whether there is any family history of swelling in the limbs? Is the swelling present anywhere else other than the lower leg? What precipitates the shortness of breath and how long does it last? Is the shortness of breath severe? How long does he need to rest to overcome the shortness of breath? Does he feel dizzy when his b...
9 Pages(2250 words)Case Study

Identification of problems in the Criminal Justice System of the US

They are on trial and will be dealt with fairly. These laws ensure that no one, even if he or she has committed a crime is abused or punished cruelly.
Following the history of civilization like in china, we see the traces of systems for Criminal justice in order to provide safety for the citizens. Evolving through the years laws have been modified and changed to form the system that we know today.
 From its start, the “U.S. criminal justice system” has advocated the idea of “checks and balances”. To avoid dictatorial rule, the people who founded this system in such a way that one person was not given control or authority completely to punish the criminals. The idea of assigning a ‘jury...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Economic Models: The Free Market and The State Owned System

The free market concept is mainly a theoretical concept as every country, even capitalist ones place some restrictions on the ownership and exchange of commodities (Free market economy). Therefore, the term free-market economy primarily means a system where the buyers and sellers are solely responsible for the choices they make. It gives the buyers and sellers the power to do business without being afraid of any regulations and intervention by the state. Hence, a free market gives the absolute power to prices to determine the allocation and distribution of goods and services (Free Market Economy). The pricing mechanism is in turn, driven by the forces of demand and supply of goods and services. Demand and supply of...
9 Pages(2250 words)Case Study

Approach to Education: Comparison of Philosophies of A S Neill & Paul Hirst

He believed that to impose anything by authority is wrong. The child should not do anything until he comes to an opinion – his own opinion- that it should be done. He states clearly his commitment to freedom of a child: ‘we set out to make a school in which we should allow children to be themselves. In order to do this, we had to renounce all discipline, all directions, all suggestions, all moral training, and all religious instruction. The child should never be forced to learn, Attendance at lessons should be voluntary whatever the age of the child. Only learning that is voluntarily undertaken has any value, and children will know themselves when they are ready to learn. (Summerhill , p.37)

Children will on...
9 Pages(2250 words)Report

The 1846 Invasion into Mexico by the U. S.: The Political and Economic Forces that Brought about the Invasion

Some of the territories led to a war with Mexico from which the United States emerged victorious, expanding its territories and decisively establishing its dominance in North America.

President Andrew Jackson led an example of an administration that set the stage for the way in which James Polk would lead. In 1817, as a still yet military leader, Jackson led the United States into the first of three conflicts with the Seminole Indians from which the acquisition of Florida from Spain would be negotiated and finalized. The situation with Spain was tenuous and should have been dealt with in a diplomatic and cautious manner, but in 1817 President Monroe wrote a letter to General Jackson stating that “Great interests...
8 Pages(2000 words)Article

Logistics System Management

The logistics system is designed in such a manner as the combination of various facilities in the transportation at home, and the operations involved in the warehouse and the distribution channels for the manufacturing are the same. The supply chain is a collection of various complicated systems of logistics where they have a collection of raw materials and goods that are useful for the manufacturing of the final product and to the final distributors. “For example, in make-to-assembly (MTA) systems components and semi-finished products are manufactured in a push-based manner while the final assembly stage is pull-based. Hence, the work-in-process inventory at the end of the first stage is used to assemble the finished produc...
15 Pages(3750 words)Coursework

The Concept of Le Confessional

... of the social issues with identity in a different light. The first cultural grammar used with the film is through the use of religion. This is a continuous theme throughout the film, specifically with the Catholic confessionals that reveal the information while propagating secrecy with those who use the confessional area. During the 1950s, there were several uprisings with the Catholic beliefs in Quebec. This led to many in society to change to the Protestant belief system. The changes in society led the Catholic institution to be questioned. The problems which arose were based on lifestyle and the decisional roles which the church should have as well as the importance of the norms that were a part of society. Marriage, family, co...
15 Pages(3750 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Lebanon's Confessional System for FREE!

Contact Us