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World History I a comparative analysis - Essay Example

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Agriculture was the main occupation.All farming land were owned by nobles and gave their land to their serfs to till. their lords stored surplus food. manufacturing units included bronze making which was useful for making weapons and farm tools.Industries were owned by the nobility who directed the people.
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World History I a comparative analysis
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Table to Compare Characteristics Characteristics Chinese Empire Indian Empire Hellenic Empire Roman Empire Type of Government The king was powerful but the semi feudal war lords were nearly autonomous.
the king ruled .He was elected by the 'Sabha' and 'Samiti'.
Democratic government. Oligarchy prevailed.
Republic form with the senate enjoying power. Later monarchy prevailed.
Legal System
THE ZHOU amalgamation of city system became progressively centralized.
the king gave out justice after consulting his Sabha and Samiti.
In the Polis all the educated wealthy male citizens had the right to vote.
The Roman state was a authoritarian regime. The Roman law of twelve tables emerged.
Economic System (employment, commerce, technology)
Agriculture was the main occupation.All farming land were owned by nobles and gave their land to their serfs to till. their lords stored surplus food. manufacturing units included bronze making which was useful for making weapons and farm tools.Industries were owned by the nobility who directed the people.
The aryans who were the vedic people were mainly pastoral. The cow was the most important animal and economic possession. later they took to agriculture and settled in one place BARTER system existed for goods. Wheat was cultivated.
the economy was slave based. The slaves did all the hard work the ancient greeks were sea faring people and a maritime industry existed. indirect tax system was more common .it was used to build state owned universities granaries etc.
The economy had substantial economic infrastructure. Of harbors, quarries brickyards etc .agriculture was practiced the slave labors worked in the fields. Monetary stability and an expanding population stimulated economic growth IMPERIAL ECONOMIC system existed.
Social Structure
The feudal lords were all powerful. The serfs worked for the feudal lords.
the vedic age is famous for social stratification.in top bracket were the ruling and warrior class called the kshatriyas ,they were followed by the brahmanas or the priestly class. Next came the vashyas or the peasants and traders.finally the shudras who were the serving class. People lived in extended joint families .The head of the family was called GRIHAKARTA.
Only free people of greek descendant were citizens. they enjoyed full protection of the state. In ATHENS Population was divided into 4 claws based on wealth The slaves had no power but they could own family or property.
The emperor ,the senate and the army were the ruling classes. Widespread prevalence of nuclear family. Adult sons did not stay with family SLAVES were included in the family.
Military System/role of the army
The feudal war lords were all powerful .The troops fought frequent wars with neighboring settlements and herdsmen.
the kshatriyas formed the main component of military. They enjoyed a good position in society.
The hoplites and helots were the specially trained infantry. No army as such existed .it was only gathered at the time of war. Efficient navy existed.
the Romans had a paid professional army. Where soldiers had to put in 25 years of service. The army was the largest single organized body. Had the power to determine fate of emperors.
Role of Leadership
The feudal lords directed the people. All the land was owned by them.
The forms of government in their basic form began to emerge. The king was the supreme authority. He collected "Bali" or taxes from the people.
The oligarchy ruled by collecting taxes. These funds were used for funding wars and constructing magnificent temples dedicated to the gods.
The senate had existed in Rome for centuries. Remained a body representing aristocracy.
Intellectual Developments (Philosophy Science Literature)
The Chinese were the most evolved in the field of science. Discovery of gunpowder, paper etc. were all Chinese contributions to the world. Chinese medicine was based on herbs that could cure almost all diseases. Chinese philosophy was also evolved. The concept of energy flows was propounded called 'Chi'. The Chinese were also great scholars and had lots of texts on paper . They were also great travelers and this influenced their literature.
the vedic age is truly advanced.the 4 vedas tell us every thing to know about life. The 4 vedas were rig veda, atharv veda ,yajur veda and sam veda.the charaka SAMHITA.Which tell us about medicines. The concept of zero was also developed
The society was very evolved giving great liberty to thinkers and philosophers. A host of philosophers from Aristortle, Socretes and Plato imerged as great political thinkers. Literature too evolved with the famous Greek Tradidy and Comedy founding the base for drama.
Advances in the field of medicine took place with Hippocrates. The system of Roman numerals was developed.
The Roman civilization took a lot of information from the Greeks and evolved it into their own works. Roman philosophy was greatly influenced by the Greeks. Romans were best known for their advances in the field of engineering. Romans were great builders constructing great palaces, aqueducts ,bridges etc. Roman literature had Greek strains because of commonality of religion.
Status of Women
The status of women in china was not very good. Woman were not included in state policy . The concept of many wives was prevalent among the elite . The were called concubines. Among the lower classes women too enjoyed no special favors. Chinese women had to till the fields along with men. The concept of pleasing men was also taught to women making them a servile race.
the vedic age woman enjoyed equality .in the rig vedic age she could inherit and possess. By later vedic age her position had deteriorated but still she was educated .she inter mingled with men .she participated in all social functions women .the .IN THE EARLIER VEDIC AGE WOMEN COULD CHOOSE HER OWN HUSBAND but in later years she selected her husband in SWAYAWAR WHERE she could select from a COLLECTION OF MEN.
women were responsible for managing the household. supplies and overseeing the slaves. Male visitors were not allowed in rooms where women lived . women did not participate in the govt. in any direct way. DIVORCE WAS EASY BUT a male member had to petition in her behalf. Most women citizens remained indoors. They could not inherit' witness in court or own property. Most of them lived under the gaurdianship of their male relatives.
the typical marriage was where the wife did not transfer to her husbands authority. The woman remained a primary heir of her father and became a property owner on father's death. Divorce were relatively easy and needed no more than a notice of intent .WOMEN were married off in their early Teens .Arranged marriages were practiced .
Education
The Chinese education system was pro the elite. Only the elite class had excess to good education that included study of scriptures , science and the arts. The lower classes were uneducated forced into a life of hard labor and toil.
Education system was well structured. The gurukul system
Of education was followed. The student left home to stay with the teacher to study. Teaching was oral'.
Education was private. The HELLENISTIC period city states had established schools. Boys learnt to read , write ,sing and play .Philosophy and rhetoric were part of the syllabus. A wealthy teenager had to t have a mentor . State universities like LYCEUM came into being..
Romans were a well educated lot. Military education was standard. All men from elite households had to serve in the army. They were taught by private tutors. Education was imparted on wide range of topics including Philosophy, Political science and military arts.
Religious/civic value systems
They were ancestor worshippers . There were court rituals to propitiate spirits. The king was head of the ancestors .Royal tombs indicate that kings were buried with articles of value.KINGSHIP was supported by the mandate of heaven. The Zhao's banned human sacrifices .They believed in the cult of heaven and the worship of stars. The Shang gods were adopted in their pantheon but given lesser roles.
The Aryans were nature worshippers and their gods were manifestation of natural forces. Later Fire God called "Agni" gained importance. As Hindusim immerged as the main gods were Indra , Varun , Vayu etc. Rituals and sacrifices were very common. The rise of the Buddha was also a feature.
worshipped many gods.Each god had distinct personalities.The 12 main dieties wer e ZEUS,HADES ,POSEDEIN,HERA,ATHENA APOLLO APHRODITE HERMES and DYNOSIA. The home of the gods was MOUNT OLYMPUS. Animal sacrifice was rampant .the sacrifices took place in front of the temple alter .Feast days filled the year .no special priestly class existed. there are evidence of physical expression of love on the part of worshippers.
they were polytheist.the main gods were JUPITOR 'JUNO'MINERVA,MARS.Thes deities were worshipped in thousand of temples. Public baths were a striking urban life WATER WAS A SACRED ELEMENT. Read More
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