The Ottoman Empire is one of the longest and largest empires of the world. It was founded in 1299 by the ruler, Osman I, by whose name the word ‘Ottoman’ is emerged, and lasted up to 1923 with establishment of the Republic of Turkey. …
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The Empire was a strong force in the Middle East and it had extended its territories to all the sides. The Byzantine capital, Constantinople fell in the hands of the Ottoman ruler, Mehmed II thus making an end to the Roman Empire. After the fall of Roman Empire in 1453 the Ottoman Empire witnessed a fast extension to far and wide. In the 15th and 16th century the Empire was extended to Europe, Africa, and Asia. It was during the period of the emperor, Suleiman the Magnificent who ruled during the 16th century witnessed the golden age of the Empire. He had made use the agencies like military and government efficiently and further through magnificent administration of both economy and military he could capture many of the places on all sides of his boundary. The Ottoman Empire’s contribution to the world is immense in the fields of art and architect, military, economic measures and administrative reforms. It can be witnessed that the dominance of the Empire in the golden age turned to be a defect in the decline period. So, in the present essay, an attempt is made to analyze the areas as, government and administration, military strength and economic power of the Ottoman Empire in golden age and in decline period. ...
The sultans ruled the empire by the help of the imperial council headed by the Prime Minister (New Challenges for Africa and the Islamic World 1450-1750, p.476). But, towards the 17th and 18th centuries political changes caused for the decline of the empire. “The practice of raising the ruler’s sons as indulged prisoners in the palace to prevent rebellions contributed to a long series of uninformed, inexperienced, and often debauched sultans and shahs” (Africa, Southwest Asia, and India in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, Ch.6 p.189-190). The emperor governed the country through different religious communities but these communities later became powerful and so the emperor’s control over them was weakened (Africa, Southwest Asia, and India in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, p.479). Moreover, the Ottoman state was not centralized and so the control of the imperial was difficult. All these factors of loose administration and changes contributed for its decline which came in the 18th century. Military Strength: Military strength was the once the major domain of the Ottoman Empire. Until 1600 the weapons used by the Ottomans were the supreme in Europe. “The Ottomans adopted gunpowder weapons, especially cannons, which were often built and operated by mercenary Hungarian Christians in Ottoman service” (New Challenges for Africa and the Islamic World 1450-1750, p.476). Until 1600 the weapons used by the Ottomans were the supreme in Europe. The navy of the Ottoman led by the Muslim refugees from Spain was very excellent (New Challenges for Africa and the Islamic World 1450-1750, p.476). The Ottoman military during its golden age was very
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