Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Forensic soils examination - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
forensics is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. This may be in relation to a crime or to a civil action. The use of the term "forensics" in place of "forensic science" could be considered incorrect; the term "forensic" is effectively a synonym for "legal" or "related to courts" (from Latin, it means "before the forum")…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER94.5% of users find it useful
Forensic soils examination
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Forensic soils examination"

forensics is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. This may be in relation to a crime or to a civil action. The use of the term "forensics" in place of "forensic science" could be considered incorrect; the term "forensic" is effectively a synonym for "legal" or "related to courts" (from Latin, it means "before the forum"). However, it is now so closely associated with the scientific field that many dictionaries include the meaning given here.
Criminalistics is the application of various sciences to answer questions relating to examination and comparison of biological evidence, trace evidence, impression evidence (such as fingerprints, shoeprints (shoe prints on soil also), and tire tracks) and other evidence in criminal investigations. A separate squad has been set up in US federal investigating agencies for this aspect of forensic research which play a vital role in leading to the culprit as he not immune from my commiting a blunder while carrying out his crime.
In real-life crimes, colour is one way that forensic scientists analyse soil from a crime scene or suspect. They can also check mineral composition, the density of the soil and its pollen content. The evidential value of soil stands on large variation in its characteristics.Soil has extreme complexity not only in components such as minerals, oxides, organic matter, micro organisms and their materials butalso physical nature such as particle sizes and densities. Considering the granite rock alone, for instance, there are an almost unlimited number of kinds. They are easily recognized according to difference of color, mineralogy, texture and a lot of other characteristics. Diversity of soil is the results of many kind of formations process on diverse kind of parent materials, which strongly depends on topography, climate, course of years, botanical and microbiological functions, conditions of watering, and even human activities. Moreover, there are millions of fossils, external matters such as pollen and spores and even artificial materials. Forensic soils examination has been very complicated because of complexity of soil, but such diversity and complexity enables to discriminate soil samplers with high discriminating power. The biggest problem in forensic soils examination is shortage of well-trained staffs and expertise for soils in crime laboratories. Especially mineralogical identification using polarized microscope requires sophisticated and experienced skill, and it also forces examiners to work patiently for many hours.
Although considering complexity of soil a variety of methods have been proposed for many years, recent trend of reports has become simplification of procedures and methods. However, still standardization of forensic soil examination is difficult because of diversity of soil samples. Methods sometimes must be changed to optimize for conditions of soil samples. Macroscopic observation and low-power stereomicroscopic observation is important at the initial step of forensic soil examination. It will be feasible for investigation if unique particles such as paint chips, fibers with distinctive color, glass fragments can be found both in a questioned soil sample and a control one. The examination can be focused on these unusual matters in soil, and at this step soil is only background to the evidence. Forensic soil comparison stands on considerable variation among soil content. The significance of match between questioned samples and control ones must be interpreted in consideration of the intra-sample variation within questioned samples and control samples. As it is needed to demonstrate the range of local difference of soil for interpretation, the number of soil samples collected for comparison inevitably increase. Simple and rapid screening methods, therefore, are required for successful identification from a large number of soil samples. Color comparison and determination of particle size distribution for soil samples can be carried out quite easily, and the combined data can be quite useful for discriminating among similar samples. We examine discriminating power of air-dried soil color and particle size distribution on soil samples, which had been collected systematically.
Color comparison on air-dried soil alone is insufficient for discrimination of samples. In order to increase discriminating power it is required to study multiple color observation on soil samples. This method composed of color observation on air-dried soil, moistened soil, the soil after decomposition of organic matter using hydrogen peroxide, the soil after removal of iron oxides using sodium
Dithionite and the soil ignited at 850 C in an electric furnace. For the soil after decomposition of organic matter and after removal of iron oxides, finer particle fraction will be preferable color observation. Surface is dried deposit by centrifuging after these treatments, because it is more homogeneous than the bulk sample.
This procedure is done when colour seems to be the vital lifeline in a crime scene as in looking for a blood stain which then on processing matches with the suspect.
Soil samples must be carefully collected, handled at the crime scene and then compared by a Soil Scientist to ensure that the soil samples can be useful during an investigation. To compare means to understand that no two objects on Earth are exactly the same; however, two soil samples (or other Earth material) could have originally come from the same place, but a portion of the soil (or other Earth material) could have been removed to another location during human activity. Forensic Geologists look for uncommon and unusual particles or unusual combinations of particles, in soil samples and compare them with similar soil in a known location. Depending on the type of soil and the minerals present, in addition to grain size, the Forensic Geologist employs intensive observational methods and analyzes crime information to deduce whether a soil sample can be used as evidence.
The Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) has collected and studied soil samples, minerals, and other Earth material for criminal investigations since 1935 and thousands of cases involving Earth materials are studied in the United States each year. Throughout the world soil is usually collected at crime scenes, is routinely studied at crime labs, and is often used as physical evidence during crime trials.
Microscopic fossils were once very prominent on Earth, and collectively deposited to form a sedimentary rock called diatomaceous earth. Some manufacturers use diatomaceous earth for insulating safes, which are used to store valuables. Burglary crimes have been solved by examining white specks from suspects' hair and clothing to determine that the specks were actually diatoms that came from broken safes at crime scenes, and not dandruff as the suspects had claimed.
References: - forensic definition and information regarding soil analysis while the rest I knew as I learned it from a book during my early college years as it was part of my college syllabi. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Forensic soils examination Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Forensic soils examination Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words. Retrieved from
(Forensic Soils Examination Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
Forensic Soils Examination Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words.
“Forensic Soils Examination Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Forensic soils examination

M.A. Forensic Psychology Comprehensive Examination

...? Forensic Psychology M.A. Forensic Psychology Comprehensive Examination FP68 Psychological Theory and Practice A. What assessment would you conduct to enhance your understanding of the client(s) problems and how would they direct your diagnostic formation? In addition, what formal assessment procedures (either conducted by you or by someone you would refer to) would enhance your understanding of the problems and direct your treatment planning? Why? For the purposes of forensic psychology and corresponding treatment, it will be necessary to conduct a number of assessments on JR. A lifestyle assessment will be necessary first and foremost before any therapeutic interventions are prescribed (Rotgers & Maniacci, 2006, p. 52). The lifestyle...
40 Pages(10000 words)Research Paper

Parable of the soils

...The Parable of the Soils The readings from Mathew 13:3-23; Mark 4:3-25 and Luke 8:5-18, all refers to the parables of the soil that Jesus told the people who came to listen to him. The parable as told by Jesus is about a farmer who went to the field to sow seeds. In doing this, some seeds fell on the side of the street but birds came to eat them. Some seeds fell on stony places that at first sprung but because of lack of water and soil, it withered and died. Other seeds fell into the bed of grass with thorns but were eventually choked by the thorns. There is however seeds that fell into good grounds that bore plenty of fruits. The apostles questioned Jesus why He talks in parables, upon which, Jesus explained that there is deeper...
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper


...INSIDER TRADING Facts of the Case: Joan is a duly registered stock broker working for Good Hands People in New York. She has become close friends with Jake Johnson, owner of a media company, and Johnny Jones, VP of a company that manufactures ethanol/gas. The three spend much time together; on one occasion, Johnny relates to Joan and Jake that his company will expand into Iowa, in which case it will be able to avail of lower material costs. In the next six months the three accumulate stock on their portfolios. Johnny’s secretary Rita relates to the Justice Department agent about Johnny’s lunch dates with Joan and Jake, as a result of which ”they are going to become wealthy by buying company stock.” Issue: The legal question... TRADING Facts ...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Bearing Capacity of Soils

...Bearing Capacity of Soils Abstract The objective of this experiment was to determine the right size for a foundation. It involved conducting tests and analyses of soil to determine the amount of pressure it could handle. The ability of a structure to withstand its own weight or that which it supports determines whether or not the structure will serve its purpose; these structures include buildings, billboards, swimming pools, or even roads. The bases of such structures, therefore, need to be properly designed, keeping in mind the overall soil structure. If this is not properly done, then the structures are likely to collapse, resulting in massive catastrophes. Sound engineering principles should be employed in the design...
2 Pages(500 words)Lab Report

Assignment: Forensic Accounting and Fraud Examination

...Assignment: Forensic Accounting and Fraud Examination Question Other than Mac, give some other examples ofhow substitute currency is used The other examples of how substitute money is used in the prisons include: payment using fillets of oily dark-fleshed fish, the use of books of stamps, and the use of PowerBars or cans of tuna. a. Give a specific illicit example of how it is used The Macks could be used to buy illicit goods such as stolen foods and home-brewed prison hooch. Additionally, the cans of tuna could be used to make makeshift knives which could pose a danger to the inmates. b. Give a specific example of an (arguably) legal use Legally, the Macks could be used to pay for services such as shoe-shining, cleaning of the cells...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

Graphology Vs Forensic Document Examination

...Graphology Vs Forensic Document Examination a.) The Differences between Forensic Document Examination and Graphology. Graphology, also referred to as Grapho analysis denotes study of handwriting, especially as an indicator of the writer’s character or disposition (Headrick & Huber, 2010). Conversely, forensic document examination is a scientific field lawfully-established to ascertain the legitimacy and point out the documents in dispute any form of forgery (Lewis, 2014). Writing projects a personality description, therefore, graphology is meant to relate specific graphic stroke-structure to certain behavior or underlying disposition (Headrick & Huber, 2010). FDE scope encompasses ascertaining of one’s script as well as signatures...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Advanced Criminalistics: Forensic Document Examination (Part 2)

...Website Review Number The link http opens up to the official website of The AmericanSociety of Questioned Document Examiners. The website offers a rich source of valuable information that could greatly aid one who is particularly interested in the organization, its activities, and the field of forensics. My relatively short exploration of the website enlightened me on quite a lot concerning The American Society of Questioned Document Examiners (ASQDE). The brief exploration was not due to time constraints but was rather facilitated by the nature of the website that was quite easy to explore, with very brief and light pages. In addition, one does not have to strain looking for important links or areas to visit...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Soils report

The moisture content at the boundary is normally defined as the water content at which the two halves of the soil cake will flow together for a distance of about half inch. The plasticity index on the other hand is the numerical difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit and this number is normally dimensionless (Day, 2005). Both the liquid and the plastic limits are used to express the moisture content in the soil. The plasticity index is the difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit.
For the consolidation test, the pressure void relationship in the soil can be determined. This data is very important in the determination of the compression index of the soil and the pre-consolidation pressure (...
5 Pages(1250 words)Lab Report

Hydraulic Conductivity in Soils

...Hydraulic Conductivity in Soils Hydraulic Conductivity in Soils Bi-modal soils are the soils that have structural and matrix porosity (Dexter & Richard, 2009). In these bi-modal soils there is a model for water retention which is developed into other models such as the tri-modal soils (Dexter & Richard, 2009). Such a change ensures there is an incorporation of the existing effects of macro-pores. Additionally, the bi-modal soil model has its basis on the idea of water retention function of the exponential Boltzmann. Researchers also believe that the model can also extend to include other numbers such as the “n” of the modes of porosity. These modes exist because the soil structure is usually hierarchical. It is also used together...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Forensic Evidence of Gunshot Residue

Proves are very crucial to many investigations, especially when attempting to reach a logical conclusion of whether or not the investigated shooting was done in self-defence, suicide, or in fact a homicide. Again, all the most up to date studies are also included in this researched literature being presented. The conclusion is in showing just how valuable of an asset these specific tests really are towards the outcome of numerous investigations from the past and in the present.
The materials that are found to make up gun powder residue and seemingly found to predominantly consist of a mixture including organic and non-organic substances are basically elemental metals, among other items. However, it has been determined by a nu...
11 Pages(2750 words)Coursework

Postcolonial Literature: An examination

The idea of 'postcolonial literature' was initially conceived to describe writing from the former British Empire. It was in many ways a substitute for Commonwealth literature (referring to the loose political entity created after the British empire ended), though it basically maintained the same shape.

Most of the literature that was included was written in English. Though critics have contested it, there are strong thematic and formal similarities between Anglophone African, British Caribbean, and South Asian pieces of literature from the 1950s-1980s. This may offer a clue to the answer to the question regarding Singh. The question is It is never clear what Singh intends by writing his book, his purpose keeps changing...
12 Pages(3000 words)Book Report/Review

The Graduate Records Examination

...1) I have taken the Graduate Records Examination, the SAT, and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skill and have found all of these tests to be very difficult. In each of these situations, the student is placed into a pressure filled situation and left without much support. All throughout a student’s education, there is constant support from teachers, peers, and parents, but this is not present in these new situations. This can be troubling for many students, which can lead for them to panic about these new surroundings. For example, much of the classroom learning is done in a classroom environment, but these assessment tests can often take the students out of the classroom and into a new setting. While students should be able to adjust to these new...
7 Pages(1750 words)Assignment

An Examination of the Relationship between Excess Dietary Protein and Bone Loss or Fractures in Elderly People

...An Examination of the Relationship between Excess Dietary Protein and Bone Loss or Fractures in Elderly People The effect of protein consumption on bone density is uncertain. However, an increased consumption of protein causes excretion of calcium from the body. Thus, inadequate dietary intake of calcium could adversely affect the risk of bone loss or fracture from dietary protein. There is no clear evidence of the type of protein; animal or vegetable and its effect on bone density. The study examines the relationship between dietary protein and bone loss or fractures in people aged 55-95 years old. Also, the effect of dietary supplements, type of protein and lifestyle would be examined. The strength of the study would be to contribute...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Proposal

Forensic Mental Health

In contemporary society, we do have a moral obligation to treat everyone who enters the criminal justice system fairly. However, there are two aspects of this argument that seem to be developing. On the other hand, someone who does not have control of themselves because of mental illness may need to be seen differently than what has been set for "normal" criminals. The literature points in both directions and this can be a difficult call when people are actually entering the system.

In the current literature, the current criminal justice system has specific ideas of what should be done when an individual commits a crime. As an example, Carvan (1999) poses a question in a case study that is pertinent to the shit study. I...
10 Pages(2500 words)Coursework

International Security Studies: Examination

Globalization affects international security in the sense that problems involving terrorism, the environment, religious extremism, weapons of mass destruction, and the economic crises have become more universal and widespread in character (Ivanov “Article”). As a result, these issues pose a greater threat to national and international stability and safety. More lives are now affected by threats to international security; these threats did not seem too ominous before the entry of globalization. Consequently, some extremists justify the use of mass weapons of destruction in order to guarantee their security. And as globalization continues to expand and to grow bigger as a phenomenon, threats to international security are...
7 Pages(1750 words)Assignment

A Comparison of Sins: An Examination of John Miltons Paradise Lost

...Client A Comparison of Sins: An Examination of John Milton’s Paradise Lost The poem Paradise Lost by John Milton is a study of the nature of man as seen through the metaphorical experience of the myths of Satan and embellished with themes that can be found in pagan myths. This epic poem takes its basic structure from classic Greek writings of the same form and incorporates many classical concepts from the poems of that period. Originally published in 1667 in ten volumes, it was revised by Milton to twelve volumes which became its final published form in 1674 (Milton and Dore lviii). Milton took the basic stories of Genesis and created an embellished piece with concepts derived from other sources beyond the Bible. In comparing two events...
10 Pages(2500 words)Book Report/Review

Special Needs in Forensic Mental Health

...Running Head: Adolescent Case Study on Juvenile Delinquency Introduction For quite a long time, criminal justice mechanism and implementation have been difficult with respect to the problematic teenagers. Generally, the age group of 13 to 18 years is marked as the adolescent population. Unfortunately, these young people often fall victim to the irregularities and problems of modern lifestyle (Butterworth, D. A., & Wikstrom, P. H., 2007). Australia is no exception to this situation, and the number of cases of lawbreaking by adolescents is on the rise. The wide spectrum of social issues involved in the problematic behaviour patterns of today’s teenagers cannot be neglected. However, advanced researches in Forensic Mental Health can formulate...
8 Pages(2000 words)Case Study

Scientific Method Applied to Forensic Science in Criminal Justice

... to its victim the examiner can know how the crime was instigated. This is where the examiner uses the hypothesis created to predict the presence of other phenomena. This is considered to be the next stage. This stage can be looked at as being the most crucial part. However, the other two that come before it are just as important (Petherick & Turvey, 2009). Without the two, it could be impossible to get to this stage. It is, therefore, important not to overlook certain steps. That is why procedure has to be followed in forensic science where the lives of people are at stake. Determining whether a person is innocent, or condemning a person to life imprisonment can be a hard task. That is why the examiners have to be very professional about...
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper

Features of Forensic Science: Tyrosinase Practical

...FORENSIC SCIENCE: TYROSINASE PRACTICAL and Table of Contents Introduction 3 Hypothesis 5 Methodology 5 Materials for data collection 5 Procedure 5 Results 6 Discussion 13 Conclusion 13 Bibliography 15 Introduction Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme which is widely distributed in plants, microorganisms, and animals (Axford, 2003). It is found inside the melanosomes. In humans, tyrosinase is encoded by the TYR gene. TYR gene is located in the melanocytes and gives instructions for making the tyrosinase enzyme. This catalyzes the production of melanin and other pigments by oxidation from tyrosine of melanin and other pigments. In molecular biology, it refers to an oxidase that is a rate-limiting enzyme used in controlling...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Proposal

Forensic Criminological Examination of Intimate Partner Violence

... Forensic Criminological Examination of Intimate Partner Violence Introduction Intimate partner violence or domestic violence can be described as a considerable issue that is damaging for lives of people in a society. Any kind of physical, sexual or psychological injury or impairment by an intimate partner such as husband or wife whether they are in relation or separated can be defined as intimate partner violence (Kendall & Giacomoni 2007). According to Hattery (2009), intimate partner crime can be defined as “physical, emotional, psychological and sexual abuse that takes place between intimate partners” (p. 11). This issue does not belong to any one society or country as it belongs to every society and all over the world. However...
24 Pages(6000 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Forensic soils examination for FREE!

Contact Us