and Asher, J.W. 2006, p. 215) Table 3 illustrates the elements tested for, and Table 4 demonstrates their relevance to metacognitive pedagogy, but noticeably absent are any variables that account for pragmatic or strategic competence. Although the study claims to not be able to identify the social strategies at use in the cognitive reading process as an independent variable, the conflicting results of the statistical data point to its existence. When explaining the varying data, the research cites Nikolov (1999), who claims that age can be a determining factor in the receptivity of ERST teaching methods, yet offers no physiological evidence for such a claim. A pragmatic interpretation of the psychological data would support the claim that it's not the physical age of the participants, but the more developed degrees of pragmatic knowledge that the older learners have accumulated that makes them more or less susceptible to ERST training.A similar instance occurs when considering threshold values and the affects of L1 reading ability and L2 language proficiency on language learners.