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Exploration of Pilot Fatigue and Sleep Factors - Literature review Example

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This paper represents an exploration of the broad ramifications of a slow onset of inadequate rest by pilots. It uncovered that there are a number of important aspects, and areas that contribute to fatigue factors that can escape the notice of pilots regarding their physical and mental state…
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Download file to see previous pages It was found that pilot error is the major cause of airline accidents (Dismukes, et al, 2017). This categorization is also termed as human error (Wiegmann and  Shappell, 2017).  Hawkins (2917) advises that in analyzing airline accident statistics human error represents around 60 percent of all airline accidents and this number is attributed primarily to takeoff and landings, with the latter representing approximately 70 percent of that total. Hartzier (2014) states varied studies have uncovered that pilot fatigue is frequently associated with changes in time zones, new surroundings in terms of layover accommodations, personal issues and different deep sleep patterns and how one achieves this state. The above introduction has been provided as a basis to understand the significance of this study. Pilots may encounter acute and chronic fatigue caused by a number of reasons. Hickie et al (2006), along with Jackson and Earl (2006) as well as  Borghini et al (2014) state that the monotonies associated with flights present the primary cause. The same in-flight routines become second nature and contribute to boredom (Stokes and Kite, 2017). The length of time pilots are confined to the cabin and the endless drone of the engines create a situation that contributes to the constant reminder they are confined (Baba and Daruis, 2011).  Other aspects represent constantly different hotel rooms, inconsistent food intake when in flight as well as on the ground, inability to adjust to hotel beds, along with changes in regional time patterns (Caldwell et al, 2009), The variable times of flights interfere with waking and sleep time patterns thus they tend to lie on beds semi-awake for periods of time (Durmer and Dinges,2005). Other factors represent non-work associated aspects that can cause stress (Stokes and Kite, 2017). Rosales-Lagarde et al (2012) brought forth that numerous medical studies have established the link between a lack of REM sleep on a regular basis as being a contributor to acute and chronic fatigue. One of the contributing causes represents sleep disruption (Buxton et al, 2012). This can b\e caused by sudden noises or movements that intermittently jog a person awake (Sateia – Chest, 2016). It can also be caused by issues or problems a person is having in terms of work or personal areas (Ohlmann et al, 2009). The problem with sleep disruption is that one needs to be aware of the circumstances or conditions that are causing them to lose sleep and modify their surroundings to remove these sources (Schenck, 2007). Over a period of time, a person can come to think of these situations as normal and not realize that they are slowly developing fatigue symptoms (Juliff et al, 2015; Costa, 2010). Skeldon et al (2014) state there are three major groups of sleep patterns. Polyphasic sleep refers to one sleeping more four to six periods during a day (Karlen, 2010). Biphasic sleep patterns refer to individuals that sleep twice a day as a normal routine of different durations (Steriade, 2006). Monophasic sleep represents sleeping once per day that generally consists of eight hours (Bourne, 2008). ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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