International marketing - Essay Example

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Introduction Cultures are deep-seated; cultures are pervasive. Culture drives how people communicate and what they communicate. As international marketing communication has been of increasing interest, marketers have also developed interest in advertising across markets and cultures…
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"International marketing"

Download file to see previous pages However, globalization has not diminished social and cultural differences across markets which suggest that marketing communication strategy needs to address these differences when communicating across cultures. Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture are the most widely applied theory in understanding national and international markets. This paper argues that the concepts of self, personality and identity differ across culture which in turn influences advertising strategy across different markets. However, advertising strategy cannot solely be based on Hofstede’s dimensions of culture. Other factors and variables could also influence the advertising appeals. It is essential to understand how advertising works in different cultures and to understand this, the advertising value has to be perceived in the right manner. Consumers and Cultural dimensions Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another (Hofstede, 1990). National culture differentiates one nation from another but within the national culture several subcultures may exist. Consumers differ not only in their lifestyle, beliefs, attitudes and buying habits and at the root of all these, is the difference in culture. Cultural values actually represent the core beliefs of the society. It also includes education, religion and the physical environment. Attitudes develop over time and can change with age and education. In personal communication verbal and body language both can difference across cultures. Understanding cultural differences is a prerequisite for international advertising as a culture’s values are reflected in its advertising (Aillaud & Hahnel, 2006; Chang et al, 2009; Alozie, 2010). Culture and advertising Culture and advertising are inherently related and beliefs towards advertising differ across cultures (Liu et al, 2011). Advertising represents a special type of mass media discourse where verbal and non-verbal messages are unified into a single entity (Ustinova, 2008). Advertising merges the voices of authority and intimacy as they are constrained by the need to fulfill the wishes of their clients. Advertising is closely related to culture and must be adapted to meet the consumer’s needs. Tastes and desires may have become homogenous; values and needs have not become universal (Cemalovic, 2009). Cultural differences continue to exist in language, customs, and habits which heighten the importance of localizing the marketing strategy. Cultural values are an integral part of the consumer’s self. Therefore, for advertisements to be effective, they should be centered on the customer. Mental and social processes also make a difference in how advertisements are perceived (Mooij & Hofstede, 2010). Mental processes are internal – how people learn, perceive and process messages. Social processes include motivation and emotions. Both these processes affect mass communication and interpersonal communication which in turn impact the advertising appeals and advertising style. Advertising appeal and culture While designing advertisements the consumers must be focused upon. Culture influences various elements of consumer behavior and each of these have to be considered by the marketers when designing advertisements. Consumers differ in how they process information and perceive the message. Advertising appeals are specific approaches that marketers use to communicate ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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