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Negotiations - Essay Example

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Name: Title: Course: Tutor: Date: Ethics in Negotiation Introduction Ethics broadly defines the social standards that determine what could be right or wrong given a particular situation. Ethical decisions have proven to be inescapable in negotiations as they prescribe the rules needed in a society where people live together…
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Download file to see previous pages The requirement to move the opponents from their preferred solution could motivate individuals involved to go against contemporary ethical standards; they could employ inappropriate influence tactics so as to gain compliance from the other. Guasco and Robinson put the ethical argument in context noting that “what is one negotiator’s appropriate tactic is another’s unethical trick” (2007, p. 135). Approaches to ethical reasoning In business negotiation, various standards have been used to evaluate tactics, as identified by Lewicki, Barry and Saunders (2007). The end result tactic would be applied where the negotiator chooses to adopt an action based on the expected results. Duty ethics would cause the negotiator to choose a course of action based on such person’s duty to uphold suitable rules and principles. The third standard referred to the fact social contract would cause one to choose a specific course of action based on the strategy, values and norms of an organization or community they exist in. Finally, personality ethics would cause one to choose to follow a specific course of action based on personal convictions. ...
Here, the negotiator aims at distorting the settlement point. For example, a buyer willing to spend up to $10,000 on machinery could indicate to the buyer the willingness not to spend more than $8,000. This tactic has been noted to be necessary in creating a rationale that would make the opponent make concessions. According to Lewicki, Barry and Saunders (2007), negotiators who make extreme demands and have the opponents give in achieve favorable settlements. In bluffing negotiation tactic, the negotiator would falsely state the intention to perform an act. These have been described by Lewicki, Barry and Saunders (2007) as false threats and acts. For example, a negotiator could threaten to undertake a specific course of action should the opponent fail to perform a specific task. But this would be said without any intention to live up to the stated consequences. Guasco and Robinson (2007) argue about the unethical form of bluffing such as the one where a seller lies to a buyer of a prospect who has bid a higher price for a car, yet in real sense no one else has participated in negotiations. Therefore, the scholars liken bluffing in negotiation to poker. With falsification, erroneous or incorrect information would be introduced as if it were true (Lewicki, Barry & Saunders, 2007). Some examples include erroneous financial information, false guarantees and warranties. Falsification could be printed or spoken and would be aimed at using erroneous information to distort actual facts, thus changing the position of the opponent. The fourth negotiation tactic, as identified by Lewicki, Barry and Saunders (2007), is known as deception. Here, the tactic would attempt to manipulate the logical and inferential processes of the opponent so as to cause incorrect deduction or ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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