SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT WAS THE PRODUCT OF 19TH CENTURY INDUSTRIAL PRACTICES AND HAS NO RELEVANCE TO THE PRESENT DAY. by Author’s Name Name of the Class Name of the Professor Name of the School City, State November 6, 2012 Management has evolved giving a new face at work the place for the leaders and the general workforce…
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Referring to Murugan (2004), scientific management is a systematic and thoughtful approach to the job of management which applies the scientific methods of study and analysis to the problem of management, while using scientific approach of techniques to improve efficiency. This approach was based on the four main principles as developed by the earlier pioneers ; it included developing a science of work, scientific selection and training, educating workers and managers in the benefits of scientific management, equal division of responsibility, maximum output and finally specialization and collaboration between workers and managers (Admin, 2011). The modern form of management has been inspired through the social, economic, technological and legal importance attached to a firm or business. Modern management has blown out the significance of scientific management by introduction of reliable concepts which step further away from the classical management thought. Modern management employs empirical, decision theory, social, quantitative management, system management and contingency approach schools of thoughts, which create easier and flexible methods to handle differences in behavioural changes of the work force, and the demanding tasks in the working environment. Globalization: Pioneers of scientific management in the 19th century focused their attention on a particular area of production in manufacturing industries. The science of work carried out rotated within the industry hindering its application on the wider scope. Today, modern management operations have focused on broad concepts of management without limitations to its application on a variety of work environments, both local and foreign. Geographic boundaries are no longer barriers to management, even as organizations are increasingly been set up in different regions. Every business outside there has a mission to make profits in the common markets; the managers and other leaders in an organization will experience similar challenges inline with their job, not unless it can be able to sustain a comparative advantage over other competitors in the market. Modern management has extended to international co-operations which require managers to have a strategic plan in coordinating the functions and activities at different platforms. The scientific concept is primarily applicable to production operation of industrial engineering more than the general management, restricting its applicability to serve functions (Murugan 2004). Following the modern system’s approach, “management is expected to perform maintenance and adaptation functions” emphasizing on the interrelationship and interdependence among various activities of an organization (Murugan 2004, p.66). As organisations spread out across the globe through branches, their management complexities become difficult to monitor, requiring new faces to shape current practices in management, and solve different forms of crisis as managers also take a new direction in the way they carry out their jobs. Though the entire large system is sub divided into manageable sub systems, all of them must be in balance with each other to ensure harmonization. The open system is ready to adapt new changes from the environment that is affected by different instabilities around the globe. Technology: Jobs today differ from the old method of manual practice. Businesses and organizations
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Management has been regarded as one of the most important, critical and challenging part of the human activities. The management skills, strategies and capabilities became even more critically important when it comes to the social and business organizations where specific aims, objectives and goals have to be achieved.
Electricity, petroleum and steel were the most wonderful discoveries of the first half while the growth and expansion of the steam ships and railways occurred in the second half. The industrial revolution shaped the 19th century as an interface between the modern world and the ancient world for the Europe in terms of the gender roles in the society and for the US in terms of technological advancement.
1). However, because work is also an activity that entails the interaction and involvement with other people, this does not make it an individualised endeavour but rather a group-oriented action that brings the benefits to many (Pitsis, Clegg, and Kornberger, 2011, p.
The conclusion from this study states that scientific management focuses on labor specialization and hiring of many organizational managers. This management system is not applicable to the 21st-century organizations because it does not encourage diversity and training of employees. The modern organization's value diversity and training because they increase the business profitability.
Taylor and his followers. Even though Taylor informally used the term to show his contributions to firm management, his friends intentionally chose the word “scientific” to endorse their argument that the methods used by Taylor were an option to railroad price increases where they were organizing for the Interstate Commerce Commission.
This approach made that all the skilled artisans as well as supervisors relinquish their power. After a period of monitoring workers while on their duty, Taylor got tired of their sluggish approach towards their work. He felt that employees deliberately slowed the work rate they should exhibit and by this fooling the employers.
This theory was one of the first attempts to bring together scientific methods and the management processes in industries. It was proposed at a time when scientific methods were thought to be the best way of doing almost anything. Therefore, it is not a surprise that this theory could also be proposed for the management process in industries.
Taylor developed the principles of scientific management during the scientific revolution over a hundred years ago. His principles on the best way to do a task and worker selection are some of his ideas that have continued to elicit varied reactions in management sector. There are those who think that Taylor’s ideas placed greater emphasis on the organization.
The notable developments in the economic and social sector during the last quarter of the 19th century were the invention of the telephone by Graham Bell in 1876 revolution and the 1885 invention of the machine gun by Harim Maxim. Later the same century in 1888, Nikola Tesla invented transformer and the AC motor.
Among the great tycoons attributed to the success are the John D. Rockfeller and Andrew Carnegie (Josephson, 2010). However, the way they rose to success and made their great wealth is very questionable hence painting them as “Robber Baron”.
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