Mankind has been in voyage towards improvement regarding the activities of social nature. In this pursuit it has managed discovering many fronts. All these endeavors are motivated by one cause- ease and improvement…
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Taylorism and Scientific Management
Scientific management concept is being brought to focus in this regard, its nature, impact, and path forward is being examined. Historical background: The journey of products and services manufacturing can be traced back to primitive days in mankind’s history. While at one time, the focus of ability was manual methods and horticulture, with time it transformed into less manual and more machine enabled functions. The industrial revolution gave it further acceleration. With advancements in science and technology, the need was felt to make use of it in the managerial field. As a result scientific tools were brought into action to utilize all the benefits possible. The dilemma: With scientific approach adaptation comes useful and smart work concept. It is a tool which can help improve excellence by many proportions, at the same time it can result in resources wastage if not brought into use in a proper manner. The way out: While scientific methods are in practice all over, it is the management and wise moves that can convert the ordinary into extra ordinary. Management is the man’s ability to make use of the technologies to the desired output. This is possible by studying the scientific management in its due manner. For example if it is sought to know how scientific management differs from others, a comparison can be drawn to know the difference. The differentiating factors can be determined only if the two parallels are compared. For this the scientific and non scientific methods are being brought under scrutiny to gauge the difference. This is followed by the addressing of the question that what possible difference could an individual make to a particular position or how much does the top management influence the lower unit and how well and integrated does it keep it. Pre industrial and pre scientific era: Prior to the advancements that took place in form of industrial development and scientific advancements. Manual methods and large number of man power was the order of the day. The number of personnel a particular company possessed, the more it was termed as self sufficient and powerful in the field of manufacturing. It is often termed as era of ordinary management. That epoch of managerial journey was marked by generalized functioning of the members, with lack of any documented procedures and activities. The professional traits were being transferred to individuals through pedigree of field experience from one generation to another. That particular era was alien to the concept of technical, written methods. The specialization of tasks and knowledge area of individuals enabled more productivity and less hassle. What was done with hundreds of members was made possible through only tens of them through the art of specialization and division according to the nature of work. The fruit of specialization are derived in a multi fold manner. Not just the output activity has gained from it, rather the individuals as well who have to undergo less yet accurate physical processes to reach to a desired output. Under the umbrella of scientific method and specialization, the scope and domain of performing a task is not just limited to one aspect, rather a task can be done in multiple ways each striving to outsmart the other and providing an edge over the other. In other words, the scientific applications provide array of options for implementing the tasks in different ways. The methods at the same time have seen improvement as they were transferred and imparted from one
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The technicality, complexity and the chaotic working atmosphere of nurses make nurses more amenable to medication errors. Nurses are taught that administration of medication is an individual responsibility and that the blame for administering wrong medication is on the individual who has administered the drug.
The main premises of the theory were formulated in the 1880s and 1890s by Frederick Winslow Taylor (Lewis, Goodman & Fandt 2000). In the current management literature, the best possible use of scientific management runs counter to the most recent, and better business model, such as human relation management; hence, scientific management has been largely criticised today.
Prior to this concept, there was no such idea or approach which aimed at maximization of production. The concept also came into existence as a result of large scale exploitations suffered by the workers. Scientific management is nothing but a concept which has some pre-formulated and standard norms to improve productivity and work- place environment.
He sought to improve the efficiency in the industries to make them more productive. He also thought that there can be a 'One Best Way' to work in any situation to get the maximum out of any worker . His main theories of scientific management include:  
The Fordist system of production is grounded in a well-defined work philosophy whose primary focus is the relationship between worker and task and worker and machine. As per the Fordist economic and production philosophy, assembly line production technologies, such as which required individual worker dedication to single, repetitive tasks, were the key to mass production, hence economic prosperity.
According to the report Scientific management or Taylorism was created in 1911 by Fredrick Winslow Taylor. It states that in order to get positive results, it is necessary to advance the techniques and approaches applied by employees. Fordism is essential to have strong hierarchical control and proper labour division.
Frederick Taylor proposed the theory itself, thus it is also known as Taylorism. Taylor was an American mechanical engineer who sought to make productive contributions to industrial efficiency. His ideas would go on to make him a seminal figure in the Efficiency Movement and today he is regarded as one of the first management consultants.
8). In line with this, the main purpose of this study is to thoroughly discuss the impact of Taylorism and Fordism on contemporary management approaches and practices.
There are disadvantages in the application of Taylorism and Fordism
Over the years, scientific theory by Taylor and Ford theories have significantly shaped the theoretical foundation of production, labor force and the wage rate system. The basis of rewarding employees underpinned the
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