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Taylorism on scientific management - Essay Example

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SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT IN A WORK SETTING Scientific management: History and introduction The concept of scientific management was first introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor during the latter half of 1980’s. Lillian Gillbreth and Henry Grant associated Taylor in this task…
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Download file to see previous pages It includes setting definite parameters for evaluating performances of employees, selection of skilled workers according to the nature and necessity of industry, trainings to make workers acquire necessary skills, planning, and standard rate of wage, incentives, leaves, compensations and allocation of tasks. It was inferred by Taylor that with the help of synchronized movements, sequencing and appropriate tools, each worker could deliver more than what he usually does. Introduction of scientific management was the first approach which aimed at increasing overall gain by focusing not at the production but management. It brought a change by replacing ‘labor- centric’ attitude by ‘system- centric’ one. It was first put into practice by Bethlehem Steel plant in the year 1988 (Daft and Marcic 2010, p. 25 -27). The term ‘scientific management’ and ‘Taylorism’ are synonymous, though some often associate the term Taylorism only with the concept of reducing conflict within an organization’s managers and supervisors with its workers. This paper deals with aspects of scientific management, prevalent theories, terms and practices associated with scientific management, their implications and also the merits and demerits. At the same time, evolution, modification and adaptability of the theory of scientific management or Taylorism in modern corporate business world is also being discussed in this paper. Literature review Rationalism and Reductionism: Since the advent of Taylorism or scientific management, the ideas are largely put into practice. Over time, the original concept got modified according to expansion and necessities of industries. It got modified several times before assuming the present shape. It has been assumed that the idea had its origins in philosophy, and can be broadly divided into- rationalism and irrationalism. Rationalism, became popular in Europe during 17th and 18th century and got converted first into experience rationalism, then into mechanical rationalism and finally into reductionism. Reductionism holds that only those basic elements must be considered which remains unaffected by external factors and that advanced movements must be reduced. Reductionism in management involves adoption of analytic approach. Thus, implication of rational theory in management practice involves scientific management as well as Webber’s theory. Irrationalism deals with psychological aspects within an organization like aspiration, ambitions, desires and emotions (Dai 2011, p. 27). Work segmentation and capitalist labor: Due to flexible nature of scientific management, it was used for adjusting the problems of efficiency and waste. Human nature, natural tendencies and aspirations were identified as the key elements besides machinery and raw materials. It was believed by Taylor that workers would definitely be lazy as it is the natural to human beings, if they are continuously given monotonous or same works every day. Thus, the key to manage them effectively is division of work among workers. That is, each worker must be given those types of work in which he excels. A single task could be divided into smaller segments or sub- units so that they could be allocated easily among the workers, according to their suitability and adaptability. Thus, jobs requiring more innovation or which are complicated and versatile might be given to brighter workers. Thus, the theory of sci ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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