Name Instructor Course Date Scientific Management Introduction Scientific Management is also called the Taylor system or simply Taylorism. It is a management theory that evaluates and synthesizes workflows, enhancing labor productivity. It is a term created in 1910 by Fredrick W…
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This term was also used to refer to any organizational system that precisely brought out the functions of groups and individuals. Further, scientific management can be used to describe situations where jobs are categorized and people perform recurring tasks. Background of Taylorism In the 19th century, there were widespread unplanned companies, decentralized management, casual relations among workers and employers, and informally defined job assignments in factory systems. By the end of this century, increased completion, new technologies, demands from regimes and labor agencies, and a developing consciousness by the elites had motivated attempts to advance business and management. All these developments were aimed at initiating cautiously defined processes and risks, which were later referred to by historians as “systematic management” since they involved a careful study of individuals at work (Cumo 77). The key figure behind this innovation was an engineer based in America, who was also a management theorist and a discoverer, Fredrick W. Taylor. Taylor was born in 1856 in a Philadelphia family. He began his career in a machine shop in a steel Company in 1878 where he quickly gained experience and started initiating new methods. After approximately ten years, he invented several technical and organizational innovations such as a technique of timing employees with a stopwatch to work out best times. By the 1890s, Taylor had been recognized as the most determined and dynamic advocate of systematic management. He further introduced accounting systems that he became a consultant of the same. This system allowed the use of operating records by managers with greater efficiency, which later became production systems that enlightened managers more accurately on what was happening in the factory, control workers and their tasks, piece-rate models to motivate following of instructions by workers, and various other advancements. A couple of inventions played a big role in the creation of the scientific management theory. The invention of high-speed-steel enhanced the performance of metal-cutting tools, and attempts to initiate systematic techniques resulted in an incorporated view of innovation in management. By 1901, Taylor had styled systematic management to scientific management (Cumo 78). From the actions of Taylor’s career, it is evident that systematic management was closely related to scientific management. They shared origins, liked by similar people, and shared objectives. The distinctions between them also were clear. Systematic management was distributive and practical, some isolated approaches that did not make a larger whole (Sapru 92). On the other hand, scientific management contributed important details and an understandable point of view. Taylor decided to promote the two systems in 1902 when he got out of Bethlehem. The American Society journal first published Taylor’s first documentation on his vocation, “shop management” in 1903, which was ranked as an inclusive collection of systematic management techniques. In the year 1910, Traylor was involved in scandals with rough enemies of scientific management. In response to the controversies, Taylor came up with a new approach to his system, which he named “The Principles of Scientific Management.” In this account, he really embraced the term “Scientific Management” as used it to symbolize the whole system. He argued
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Management has been regarded as one of the most important, critical and challenging part of the human activities. The management skills, strategies and capabilities became even more critically important when it comes to the social and business organizations where specific aims, objectives and goals have to be achieved.
Electricity, petroleum and steel were the most wonderful discoveries of the first half while the growth and expansion of the steam ships and railways occurred in the second half. The industrial revolution shaped the 19th century as an interface between the modern world and the ancient world for the Europe in terms of the gender roles in the society and for the US in terms of technological advancement.
Organizations and diverse groups of businesses have changed their work flow structure into newer modern arrangements. Initially, scientific management had been employed to organize, lead, control, plan and coordinate people and activities in industries more significantly in the 19th century, than in the 20th century.
1). However, because work is also an activity that entails the interaction and involvement with other people, this does not make it an individualised endeavour but rather a group-oriented action that brings the benefits to many (Pitsis, Clegg, and Kornberger, 2011, p.
The conclusion from this study states that scientific management focuses on labor specialization and hiring of many organizational managers. This management system is not applicable to the 21st-century organizations because it does not encourage diversity and training of employees. The modern organization's value diversity and training because they increase the business profitability.
This approach made that all the skilled artisans as well as supervisors relinquish their power. After a period of monitoring workers while on their duty, Taylor got tired of their sluggish approach towards their work. He felt that employees deliberately slowed the work rate they should exhibit and by this fooling the employers.
This theory was one of the first attempts to bring together scientific methods and the management processes in industries. It was proposed at a time when scientific methods were thought to be the best way of doing almost anything. Therefore, it is not a surprise that this theory could also be proposed for the management process in industries.
Taylor developed the principles of scientific management during the scientific revolution over a hundred years ago. His principles on the best way to do a task and worker selection are some of his ideas that have continued to elicit varied reactions in management sector. There are those who think that Taylor’s ideas placed greater emphasis on the organization.
The notable developments in the economic and social sector during the last quarter of the 19th century were the invention of the telephone by Graham Bell in 1876 revolution and the 1885 invention of the machine gun by Harim Maxim. Later the same century in 1888, Nikola Tesla invented transformer and the AC motor.
Among the great tycoons attributed to the success are the John D. Rockfeller and Andrew Carnegie (Josephson, 2010). However, the way they rose to success and made their great wealth is very questionable hence painting them as “Robber Baron”.
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