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Project Management - Essay Example

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Project Management - the NHS Computer System v. the Ford Online Procurement System Table of contents 1. Introduction 3 2. Project failure – characteristics and reasons 3 3. NHS Computer System 6 3.1 Overview of the project 6 3.2 Reasons that the project failed 7 3.3 Management of change in respect to project failure 8 4…
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Project Management
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Download file to see previous pages 10 References 12 1. Introduction The success of projects is depended on a series of criteria, all of which need to be met so that a project is completed on time and according to the standards set. In practice, the achievement of the above target is very difficult. Failures in projects are common phenomenon. Despite the efforts made by managers for the limitation of project failures, the problem is still extensive in regard to projects in all sectors. The causes of project failure are reviewed in this paper. Reference is made to two, major, IT projects: the NHS Computer System and the Ford Online Procurement System. Both these projects were well structured, so that risks are minimized. However, they were finally led to a failure, resulting to severe losses for the parties involved. Appropriate literature is also reviewed for identifying the causes of project failure. It seems that project failure is unavoidable when a project is not closely monitored and adequately supported. Also, under certain terms, project managers hold the responsibility for the failure of the project assigned to them. Under these terms, it can be noted that project failure is related to many, different, factors all of which need to be addressed in order for the success of a project to be secured. 2. Project failure – characteristics and reasons Different approaches have been used in the literature for explaining the project failure, as a daily problem in all scientific and industrial sectors. O’Carroll (2003) notes that many project managers tend to focus on planning for eliminating the case of a failure. The above strategy has been proved ineffective. It is explained that ‘two much planning can be a reason for project failure’ (O’Carroll 2003, p.175). Even the requirement for following strictly the deadlines of a project can be a reason for project failure (O’Carroll 2003, p.175). O’Carroll claims that when focusing heavily on the planning phase of the project, project managers do not deal with the failure of the project; instead, a plan should be developed in advance for setting the terms on which the management of the project’s failure will be based. From a different point of view, Wysocki (2011) states that the project failure can result because of unexpected changes on a project. The characteristics of these changes are not clearly presented. It is assumed that any alteration of the project’s initial terms, as included in its plan, is considered as a change of a project. The level at which change can threaten a project is difficult to be estimated in advance. It is assumed that the threat can be higher as the alteration from the project’s initial terms is increased. Holmes (2001) claimed that the causes of project failure can be many. For example, a project is expected to fail for one of the above reasons: when it is not adequately supported by the firm’s top management team, when its plan is not detailed, when the targets set are not feasible, when no provision exists for managing the risks involved and so on (Holmes 2001, p.16). In this way, preventing project failure can be challenging task, especially if the resources required are not available or if the time limits for the completion of the project are too tight, not allowing the identification of alternative practices for facing problems appearing during the development of the project. The ‘Japan Users’ Association of Information Systems (JUAS)’ ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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