Human resources management Table of Contents Question 1- The Toyota Way ‘Hard and Soft’ Philosophies 3 Part A 3 Comparative analysis of hard and soft philosophies of human resource management 3 Advantages and disadvantages of each approach 4 Diagram for illustrating differences 6 Part B 7 Benefits and Costs of 5 soft HRM practices 7 Question 2- Concept of HRM at Toyota 9 Diagram and brief explanation of Harvard Model of HRM 9 2 HRM definitions, 2 goals and 3 HRM theories 11 Explanation of 2 HRM strategies or activities 12 Reference 13 Question 1- The Toyota Way ‘Hard and Soft’ Philosophies Part A Comparative analysis of hard and soft philosophies of human resource management To make a…
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The hard HRM philosophy is based on the notion of tight strategic control and the soft model on the contrary is based on controlling through commitment. However, it must be admitted that because of the diverse nature of the two concepts their incorporation into a single model of HRM remains incomplete and improper (Truss, et al., 1997, p.53). The basic differences between the two philosophies can be elaborated using the Michigan and the Harvard models on management. Harvard and Michigan had put forth Theory X and Theory Y for explaining the difference concepts of HRM. Theory X is based on the notion where people are viewed as being lazy and who work for own interest. It considers the interests of people and management as being completely opposite nature and those organizations need to direct their behaviour to the organization’s benefit. Theory Y considers human beings as being emotional possessing feelings and motivation. They actively participate in activities which give them pleasure and personal realization and that it is the duty of the management to motivate them and help realize their potential (Truss, et al., 1997, p.54). According to the findings of Poole and Mansfield, (1994), the hard model comprises of amore strategic approach which endorses the views of the management more than the employees. On the other hand the soft model emphasizes more on communication, team work and group activities and utilization of individual talents (Gill, 1999, p.2). Theory X which is based on the hard HRM model mainly focuses on the nature of the organization and the organizational characteristics paying very little attention to the nature of the employees while on the contrary, the soft model based on which Theory Y is derived considers nature of employees and their needs and requirements for delivering to the organization (Price, 2007, p.42). Also the soft model of HRM considers increased satisfaction as the management’s main aim against the various calculated methods which characterizes the hard model. Lastly it must be mentioned that the hard model was one of the very first theories which were developed when organizations were born and they do not exactly demonstrate human nature. They were regarding the ways of managing the workforce through scientific measurements. This theory considered humans as resources like the way machines were treated as resources of the organization. However, the soft model thinks that individuals can be proactive and creative and must be nurtured by the organization in order to ensure their commitment (Price, 2007, p.42). Advantages and disadvantages of each approach Hard HRM practices are extremely tough minded and calculative and communicates through tough languages of economics and business. It focuses on the calculative and quantitative business strategic aspects of managing human resource. The beneficial aspect of this model is that it provides a close integration of the HRM policies, practices, systems and activities with the strategic interests of the
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