Economic Geography Op-Ed - Essay Example

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I have given more detailed discussion of my argument on labour mobility. I have given in text citation. I have restructured the sentences to make it easy to understand. I have included what can be…
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Economic Geography Op-Ed
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LABOUR MOBILITY AND MIGRATION Cover letter I have reconstructed the sentences to be short so that the word count can be less. I have given more detailed discussion of my argument on labour mobility. I have given in text citation. I have restructured the sentences to make it easy to understand. I have included what can be done to improve labour mobility. Also, I have rewritten the conclusion part to cover everything about the topic of discussion. In addition, I have used more sources.
Labour migration or work mobility is the usual geographical and occupational movement of employees and workers. Employee mobility is better measured by the absence of obstacles to such mobility. There are two types of barriers to movement. That is systematic and personal. The particular hindrance involves physical location and the mental ability. The systematic complications refer to political contrivances, given laws, educational chances and barriers that come from historical instances. (Miguélez & Moreno, 2013 .The awareness and development of a high class of labour mobility and migration gives an opportunity to a more efficient and effective distribution of resources. Labour migration and movement have confirmed to be a must driver of innovations.
Conflict, misunderstanding, globalization, demographic differences and shifts, inequality in income, and change in income may arise. Moreover, this may lead to more families and job seekers to move across different borders in searching for comfortable security and employment.
According to United Nations statistics, approximately there are over two hundred million migrant and foreign workers in the world. Mobile and foreign labourers usually add up to development in their based countries as compared to the home country (World Bank, 2004). It brings brain drain. There are complicated challenges in terms of international cooperation, governance, migration and linkages of development and protections of migrant labourers. Economists and other researchers suggest that as time continues to elapse, mobility and migration of workers should have an equal impact on income. (Miguélez Moreno, 2013).International labor organization as an immigrant agency strives to enable policies that maximize the advantages of labour mobility and migration for all those parties involved. However, immigration of workers must exhibit openness, selection of migrants and the right to grant. In high-income countries, the immigration policies show temporal residence, limitation to high skilled labor and temporal restrictions of rights.
Types of Labour Migration
Established Migrant Workers
These are workers or labourers that have stayed in the foreign country for a given period mostly years where they are employed. The foreign nation gives them the permission to live indefinitely and perform their chores without significant restrictions in the foreign country. The labourers are assured of livelihood even if their work elapses and they have self-righted to be joined by their relatives members as stipulated by relevant authorities.
Project Tied Workers
Foreign labours that are recruited to a foreign country for a particular given period to chore specifically on a given project performed out in a country by the foreign labour employer. The employing authority is responsible for providing essential resources that are required to finish off the given project. The workers are deported to their home country after the project is over.
Business Travelers
These are foreign employees that are given employment opportunities temporarily for the primary objective of performing an economic event. It is defined by a foreign country of recruitment.
Contract Migrant Employees
These are individuals that are working in foreign states. They work under contractual terms and arrangements. They are given terms and duration of service. (Miguélze, 2013)).Once they are posted, it is an offence to change their jobs or vacate the country. Contract renewal is available.
Seasonal Migrant Employees
Individuals employed in a foreign country for a season. The jobs available are seasonal.
Immigrating Investors
These are foreign individuals that are given the right to reside on the basis of their investment in the country. (World migration, 2008) Consequently, they are given opportunities to invest and provide jobs to the citizens of the country of residence.
Highly Qualified Migrant Workers
These are employees that are given permission to work according to their skills. This gives them restriction concerning the time they should stay, family reunion and change of employment.
Temporary Migrant Workers
These are individuals that are taken in a foreign country to work for a specified period according to their job specification. They have the right to change jobs.
Obstacles for Labour Mobility and Migration
There are some reasons limiting labor mobility. They include low educational level, states mandate on the industries labor policies and standards. Regional and national differences in job requirement and specification, Discrimination, and less infrastructure also is a hindrance.
Remedies for labor mobility
Elimination of the explicit barriers to improving the movement of people, for example, the quotas. Examination of GATS visa for easy travel. Improvement of efficient access by regulatory transparency as stated in the Mode 4. (World migration, 2008). The clarity of the mode 4 will help the public to know what to expect during a time of employment. The Mode 4 should be restructured to discourage brain drain. The GATS visa must be mandatory to ensure migration of qualified workers. The countries need to put more effort into the labor mobility sector. The scope of bilateral labor agreements generally cover low-skilled workers, while offering a possible way for the short term dealing with such categories of workers. Correspond bilateral agreements, however, is not the most-favored-nation (MFN). It might be useful to examine how the GATS coexist with bilateral and regional labor market agreements.
Reasons for Labour Mobility and Migration
There are three primary reasons that sparkle off the labour mobility and migration.
Economic Reasons
Most individuals who migrate are in search of a better economic life. Low income and poverty are the major factors that lead to migration of labour. Other factors include unemployment, landlessness, indebtedness, rain-fed agricultural practice and crop failure.
Social Factors
Poverty and poor civic amenities are the social reasons that cause migration of labour. Intimidation from politics and unfriendly social relations also hugely constitute to a movement of labour and mobility of labour.
Psychological Factors
Miserable life, the expectation of a high life aspirations and effects of demonstrations are the main psychological reasons for labor mobility.
Labour mobility is one of the major features of economic development. Supply and demand for labour are determined by market characteristics. Labour movement does not have limits. Moreover, the movement is affected by social factors, economic factors and psychological factors. (World migration, 2008)The topic of labour mobility nowadays is of concern. Individuals desperately engage in migration to improve their living standards.
However, the movement of labour is hindered by education, skills and the requirement of employers. There is a need to improve the migration policies to consider both the skilled and
the unskilled labor for economic development.
Miguélez, E., & Moreno, R. (2013). Skilled labor mobility, networks and knowledge creation in regions: A panel data approach. The Annals of Regional Science, 51(1), 191-212.
World migration 2008: Managing labour mobility in the evolving global economy. (2008). Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Migration.
World Bank, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. & International Organization for Migration. (2004). Trade and migration: Building bridges for global labour mobility. Paris: OECD. Read More
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