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This impacts negatively on the poor who have no access to Medicaid or any form of health insurance.
3. a) Indemnity health plans have higher premiums than HMOs due to two reasons: demographics and health status. Indemnity plans have more older enrollees compared to HMOs. Secondly, older people suffering from a terminal illness are more likely to join indemnity than HMO (Altman et al, 2003). Alterman et al (2003) show this by analyzing the data collected from the two health plans.
b) The weaknesses of this argument include the assumptions that HMOs negotiate for lower premiums and that they discourage sick people from enrolling with them. It is also taken for granted that HMOs offer lower intensity of treatment.
5. a) Ellis and McGuire make various recommendations on predictability and predictiveness. They state that the problem of rationing could be eliminated by identifying the problematic areas that inhibit complementarity of improving the quality of care. They suggest that payment systems should be designed for plans that attempt to neutralize incentives to ration some services more tightly than others (Ellis & MacGuire, 2007).
6. a) Mortality may decrease during recession because people lead healthier lifestyles during hard economic times than when there is abundance. During recession, unhealthy lifestyles such as excessive smoking and drinking and consumption of junk food go down due to lack of sufficient finances among people. Consequently, mortality rates reduce.
c) This is because they have huge macroeconomic effects for groups of people such as heavy smokers and the physically inactive. There are numerous indirect changes, such as changes in sleep that accompany economic fluctuations. Therefore, economic downturns affect much more than just the macroeconomic status of individuals and the country.
e) Getting Congress to lobby for the provision of affordable healthcare to all. It would enable people who cannot afford
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Industry when in the infant state is not capable of meeting head-on foreign competition; however, given the time it is capable to flourish and can compete with international players. Short term protection helps industry to develop its comparative advantage.
It gives an insight into a particular project to check its benefits and servings to the society. It highlights whether the project is fulfilling its objectives or not and if the investment made was a sound investment or not. Cost Benefit Analysis also provides a basis for the comparison of projects.
Column 4? Net cost= (cost of program+ cost of side effects) – cost of adverse health outcomes averted =?600 c. Column 5? Average cost per discounted QALY = Total Cost (?)/ Total Benefit (discounted QALYs) =10,000,000/600 =?16,666.67/QALY Therefore the Average cost per discounted QALY (c) =?
An example of oligopoly market structure is the health insurers.
Oligopolies and monopolies consist of large organizations in the market; they also hold considerable market shares over specific services and products in the industry.
The discussion seeks to answer the questions: What is the average amount spent on the remaining people in the bottom half of the distribution? Is the median (i.e., amount spent on the person who is in the middle of the distribution, with half of all people spending more, and half of all people spending less) higher or lower than the mean?
Then firm 2 chooses quantity given the choice of Firm 1.
Part b: Compare the output of the Stackelberg to the Cournot duopoly output. (* of course you will have know, or look up the Cournot model that we dealt with in the first
ws a firm to acquire its target profits by charging different prices to its consumers without their knowledge because of the reduced level of transparency (p. 565).
Loss-Leader Pricing Strategy: The strategy occurs whenever a firm imposes reduced prices on the goods of
For instance, a productive society would have better economic status, meet health care services, and consequently experience improved health status. On the contrary, ill health and poverty translates to slow
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