We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Nobody downloaded yet

Benefits and costs - Essay Example

Comments (0)
Pollution caused by vehicles contributes to exhaust emissions, which are “major contributors to air pollution” (Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [OEERE] 1). Under the the Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1970, air quality must be preserved. Current policies are…
Download full paper
Benefits and costs
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
Benefits and costs

Download file to see previous pages... Vehicles create exhaust gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrocarbons (HC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (OEERE 1). These pollutants create air pollution, adversely affecting health of the general population (OEERE 1). Market failure is inevitable as these negative externalities cause cardiopulmonary diseases leading to premature deaths, decreased visibility and other dangerous side effects.
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) used command and control policies (Peltz & Fitzgerald 2). Lead was removed from fuel, oxygenates were added and sulfur content was reduced (OEERE 2). Catalytic converters were placed on US passenger cars, SUVs and light trucks to reduce CO, NOx, HC, and VOC emissions. VOC emission capturing and emissions testing of cars were introduced too (OEERE 2). Many decided to commute and so decreased emissions levels.
However, improvements also led to reckless behavior. Pollution caused by vehicles in the USA has become a global problem. While Americans represent only five percent of world population, they use one third of world’s cars (Borger). American cars are 15 percent less fuel efficient than passenger cars driven elsewhere. Moreover, Americans on average drive longer distances than Europeans or Asians. Since 1988, carbon dioxide emissions have been increasing (Borger). CAA has not produced positive results with regard to carbon dioxide emissions. The resulting pollution has increased incidence of cardiopulmonary conditions such as asthma and heart disease (OEERE 2).
In 1990, under the CAA Amendments (CAAA), vehicle standards were made stricter (EPAa). Under the amendments, ozone pollution, carbon monoxide and particulate matter emissions were addressed. Procedures such as inspection/maintenance programs and vapor recovery installations at gas stations were introduced (EPAb). A permit system will be developed ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
Airbus: Financial Benefits & Costs
This unraveled when the company lost almost $300 million on the contracts it had with the consortium, a member of Aerospace in Britain who called for the reorganization of the managerial and financial structure of Airbus.
13 Pages(3250 words)Research Paper
A Review of the Costs and Benefits of Globalisation
This essay presents an observation on the progresses and achievements of globalisation as of today. Basically, globalisation denotes global economic and social integration. The development of globalisation has been creating enormous impacts on the development of each country worldwide, particularly in terms of culture, economy, and politics.
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
The benefits and costs of increased trade integration between countries depends on the relative importance of trade creation ver
This growth has been attributed to increased trade integration between countries which opt to come together to foster economic integration for their greater good. Growth in international trade is the result of both concerted efforts of reduced trade barriers and increasing technological developments (El-Agraa, 1981).
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Removal or Exchange Controls (Capital Account Liberalization) benefits and costs
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
What does the late nineteenth and early twentieth century global economy tell us about the benefits and costs of globalization
For the past 50 years — and this is seen in statements by the World Bank and others — the world has seen more poverty than ever and the situation is worse." (http://www.idealswork.com/interview/roddick/roddick3.asp) Professor Richard Haines who is South
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay
If industrial robots get cheap enough, they may replace almost all unskilled factory worker in the future. discuss the benefits and costs of this to society
Robots have been the focal point of many Hollywood stories and recently, many news stories as well, thus increasing the widespread concern about robots that within the few decades, they would take over the industrial sectors thus creating
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Costs of benefits
The benefits are mostly related to the investments that the organizations do in the form of training their employees and investing in other
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Literature Survey for - What are the benefits and costs of worker training, and who should pay for training
However, even with experienced workers there is need for training in order to improve individual performance. Additionally, organizations have different systems regardless of the similarities in operations undertaken. Therefore, worker training at current
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
Discussing the benefits and costs of such a metallic monetary system for an aspiring new country
Among the advantages include its being durable, more portable and promote trade. For example, the disadvantages include valuable metals limited supply, metallic coins are heavy to carry, and their
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
What are the main benefits and costs of monetary union What are the main criteria for the optimality of a currency area
There are some benefits and some cost in joining such kind of union. Below are the important costs and benefits of monetary union: (University of North Carolina, 2009). One of the important benefits of monetary union is that it eliminate exchange rate
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Let us find you another Essay on topic Benefits and costs for FREE!
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us