Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Effects of the Vietnam War Debt on America - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Name Macro & Micro economics 14 November 2012 Effects of the Vietnam Debt on America 1. Introduction Vietnam is a nation located in Southeast Asia on the eastern section of the Indochinese peninsula. Since its early history, Vietnam has faced constant invasion by outsiders…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.8% of users find it useful
Effects of the Vietnam War Debt on America
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Effects of the Vietnam War Debt on America"

Download file to see previous pages 2. Background of the U.S. Involvement in the Vietnam War Initially, the United States did not take sides on the war in Vietnam. However, a series of global events provoked the United States into backing up France. This was after President Harry S. Truman promised to assist the French in sustaining their control in Indochina. Consequently, the United Sates got involved in Vietnam. Before the war, in one way or the other, the United States believed that it was in charge of maintaining order in the world. Among Harry Truman’s foreign policies was the policy to control communism and this was very evident in Southeast Asia. During Eisenhower’s administration, the United States continued to directly support the French in form of equipment, weapons and technical assistance. According to a report by Charles E. Wilson, who was the defense secretary during Eisenhower’s first term as president, millions of dollars were allocated to the French Union Forces, in addition to a program for regular Indochinese military assistance for equipment and weapons. Campagna states that “In September 1953, $385 million were allocated to the direct support of the French Union Forces and added to the $400 million previously appropriated for this purpose in the budget for fiscal year 1954” (3). ...
This led to the transfer of these funds from assistance programs to other accounts of allotment. At the same time, a complete account of the amounts spent in Vietnam was demanded revealing the total dollars spent by the United States from 1953 to 1965. The cost of military personnel in Vietnam was not included in the accounts, as it was not clear how many dollars had been spent on this, despite the fact that between 1954 and 1961, the number of troops assigned to Vietnam had gradually increased (Campagna 5). The amounts in millions of dollars are shown in the following table: Fiscal Year Agency for International Development and other Agencies Public Law 480 (all titles) Total 1953-1957 783.9 39.4 823.3 1958 179.1 9.7 188.8 1959 200.6 6.5 207.1 1960 169.0 11.5 180.5 1961 132.6 12.0 144.6 1962 110.7 32.5 143.2 1963 133.2 64.3 197.5 1964 159.3 71.0 230.3 1965 216.1 52.8 268.9 Total 2084.5 299.7 2384.2 Source: Campagna, Anthony S., The Economic Consequences of the Vietnam War, New York: Praeger Publishers, 1991, Print, table 1.1. At this time, it was difficult to determine whether the total amounts spent in Vietnam, with or without the personnel costs, would have an impact on the economy of the United States. In the 1950s, the economy of the United States underwent a period of stagnation with three recessions during Eisenhower’s administration reducing the economic growth rate of the nation to 2.4 percent (Campagna 5). During this era, the economic and technological growth of the Soviet Union was higher than that of the United States. This brought about charges as a result of the technology gap. The United States however closed this gap by establishing the National Aeronautics and Space ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Effects of the Vietnam War Debt on America Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Effects of the Vietnam War Debt on America Essay)
“Effects of the Vietnam War Debt on America Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Effects of the Vietnam War Debt on America

Effects of Human Resource Systems on Manufacturing Performance and Turnover

Most of these developments, not surprisingly, have come from communities of scholars focusing on their own particular countries or regions, be it the US (for example, Arthur, 1994; Delery and Doty, 1996; Huselid et al., 1997), the UK (for example, Brewster, 1999; Guest et al., 2003), elsewhere in Europe (for example, D’Arcimoles, 1997; Lahteenmaki et al., 1998; Roderiguez and Ventura, 2003). The difference in perspective on the value of people in organizations and the validity of HRM, particularly in non-Western Countries may be best understood in terms of the concept of locus of human value (Jackson et al., 2003). Jackson et al. (2003) came up with a conceptual map of international organization and human resource management...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

Effects of Menopause on Women's Life

It is typically accompanied by some distressing physical and psychological symptoms in women that also impact middle adulthood. There is variation in the age at which menopause occurs; in the USA the average age at menopause is 51 years, but the usual range is 45 to 56 years. For unknown reasons ovaries gradually begin to change on hormone production during a womens mid-30s. In the womens the late 40s, the process speeds up and hormones fluctuate or change more causing irregular periods.

Some womens periods stop suddenly; others experience a perimenopause, a phase of irregular menstruation, and symptoms such as memory disturbance, bloating and feeling tired, that may be troublesome for 5 to 10 years. (Brown, 2002)
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

What Are the Effects of Industrial Pollution to Nature in Turkey

It is observed that electroplating and chemical industries are responsible for the generation of a considerable portion of emissions that contain heavy metals, and may affect adversely on human lives and environment. On the other hand, sugar, pharmaceuticals, and textile industries are responsible for the generation of organic pollutants in the atmosphere. Refineries, fertilizers, stone mines, and thermal power units are mainly the causing sectors of contributing a substantial amount of air pollution in the Turkish atmosphere. In specific, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide are some of the main pollutants that are generated from the burning of fuels in the abovementioned industries in Turkey. Though vehicular sources also cont...
7 Pages(1750 words)Case Study

Comparison of the Cold War International System to the Current International System

An example is that of the Korean War (1950-53) which is said to transform the nature of the Cold War, while its initial impact was to solidify the division of the world into political, military, and economic spheres. Take Germany for instance where imperialism was a victim challenged by the historians for the destruction of the German Government along with its supporters used to conduct (Keylor, 2001, p. 44). That indicates economic expansion and territorial acquisition has always been a problem promoted since the First World War. Even in the 1920s, it was fashionable to declare the German empire on the threshold of the ‘Great War’ (Keylor, 2001, p. 44).

Europe in the global context remained tense and divide...
8 Pages(2000 words)Article

Analysis of Mark Twains The War Prayer

As a satirist and journalist, Mark Twain wrote some of the most influential works in American literary history. His work has influenced the stereotype of American life. Within his words are the images that typify the 19th-century experience with the whitewashed fences, the steamboats on the Mississippi, and the raft on the river, rolling lazily along on a hot summer day. However, within this writing one can find a deeper truth about the greater American experience of all its inhabitants. While creating a warm and charming atmosphere, Twain commented on racial discrimination and the false ‘superiority’ that the policies of the American government. 

As it is popularly known in this time, the name Mark Twa...
12 Pages(3000 words)Book Report/Review

How Does the US Media Effects Evolve in Singapores Current Media

Lewis and Slade (2000, p. 223) in their critical evaluation of the effects of media communication on the audience argue that media effect is achieved incongruent with social context. Their study recounts the experiment on the influence of television on identity in Singapore indicates that US social values and Singaporean values greatly differ from each other. The sharp differences in program content have a negative influence on the audience because Chinese raised Singaporeans value marriage, social values, and collectivism whereas US social culture involves career, family and the struggle to balance the two. Therefore the question of US media's influence to destabilize Singaporean national identity is limited. This view is emphasi...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Roles of the African American Soldiers in the Korean War

In 1950, nearly eight percent of the total military force standing in Korea was comprised of African-American servicemen, equally approximately one hundred thousand individuals willing to fight and possibly die for their country. The country which finally gave these men this opportunity, at this time, was undergoing radical change at home and abroad in wartime. As African-Americans sought and acquired more social and economic freedom, and the consequent political power, military officials realized the underutilization of Black soldiers. As a result, the Korean War marks for the first time a major role granted to African-Americans to contribute in a significant fashion to the military endeavors of the United States.
That which...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Culture's Portrayal of the Vietnam War - A Criticism Misdirected

Most of the popular culture images were highly critical of the war and painted the US forces as brutal intruders into an otherwise peaceful and innocent jungle scene. From the viewpoint of the popular culture, its images and art, everybody had a scene to play and everybody got it wrong. The lowly buck private was no less responsible than the Commander in Chief, and the Pentagon shared equal guilt with the Military-Industrial Complex. Was the criticism legitimate? From the viewpoint of the actors, agents, and citizens that filled these roles, the medias criticism of the war and their grim portrayal of the times, was an exaggerated stretch of reality that forever tarnished the reputation of an entire generation.

It was ea...
7 Pages(1750 words)Assignment

The Effects of Financial Crisis on Supplier Selection Criteria of the Oil and Gas Industry Equipment Market

It is a difficult task to find those vendors who not only have the adequate quality and quantity of the needed raw materials but who also have an attitude of efficiency and display commitment to customer service (Sonmat, 2006). Further, organizations also strive to locate and select vendors who can be depended upon for long term relationship.

The number of factors or attributes desired from the vendor is vast, and different organizations and different industries place different importance on the attributes (Sonmat, 2006). Some of the vendor attributes may gain importance owing to the nature of the industry, for example, in the case of consumer perishables suppliers, like fresh vegetables or fruits, the buying firm would...
20 Pages(5000 words)Literature review

Effects of the United States of America Troops in South Korea

Despite the few negative incidences of crime committed by the United States of America’s security troops that were deployed in the country on a peacekeeping mission.
Since the war in Korea began in the early nineteen fifties, the United States has stationed tens of thousands of soldiers, mostly the United States’ army personnel, in South Korea. Through the assistance of the South Korean troops and other neighboring governments, the American troops have been able to guard and offer maximum security to South Korean people. In line with the argument of James (2003), ‘most of the military bases in South Korea are relatively isolated’ thus the need for much attention from the troops so as to ensure maximum...
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Effects of the Vietnam War Debt on America for FREE!

Contact Us