Resource Collection on Disabilities - Annotated Bibliography Example

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Whelan, M. A. (2004). Practice parameter: diagnostic assessment of the child with cerebral palsy: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology, 63,1985-1986.
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Resource Collection on Disabilities
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Download file to see previous pages This developmental disorder is characterised by motor disorders and secondary musculoskeletal problems which restricts patient's physical activity. Apart from mixed characteristics, this disorder is broadly classified into three main categories spastic, dyskinetic and ataxic (Thorogood & Alexander, 2009). This disability has various etiologies depending upon the stage of development. Prebirth cerebral palsy have either genetic, congential causes, while neonatal causes include prematurity, and birthing issues like hemorrhage and hypoxic-ischemic problems. In the post neonatal period the factors which are responsible for cerebral palsy are vascular, hypoxic-ischemic, metabolic, infectious, toxic, teratogenic, traumatic events (Miller & Browne, 2005, p. 30-33).
All the developmental domains of children including motor, social, language and communication, and cognition get affected in children suffering from cerebral palsy. Spasticity, Scoliosis or spine curvature are the issues of cerebral palsy leading to shortening of the muscle and thereby changes the posture. Seizures, mental retardation, ataxia are also major impairments. The loss of control and coordination affects all the daily activities.
This nonremediable disorder can be opted for multimodal treatment approach to make them relatively biologically and psychologically independent and mature. The individualized strategy adopted for individual treats them according to the status of the disorder and requirements. The personalised plan offers better quality of life to such children by enhancing their strength and preventing further complications of growth. Physical therapy involving muscle training and exercises, orthotic devices, surgery, medications and occupational therapy to relax or loose stiff spastic muscles are some of the intervention techniques which can be used. Speech therapy to develop speech and communication skills, use of hearing aid, eye surgery to rectify vision issues can also be implied depending upon the requirement.
In addition to routine multidisciplinary approach of neurologist, an orthopedist, and physical, speech and occupational therapists for the treatment of cerebral palsy patients special advice and emotional backup is required. Private and community resources, social workers' support systems, special education services etc. should be provided regularly at an early age to derive maximum benefit.
Description of characteristics and potential impact on development:
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