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This paper examines what exactly it was that these travellers found so fascinating in Italy, and how their discoveries transformed Northern Europe at a critical time in its history. There is evidence of some evolution in the way that the Grand Tour was seen by aristocratic families over this long period of some three hundred years. Porter notes that in the seventeenth century a preoccupation with religious divisions, especially in Britain, made the Grand Tour somewhat problematic. The Roman Catholic heritage of Italy was regarded as suspect by those loyal to the monarch, and a series of wars with France made sure that most young people remained preoccupied with interests closer to home (Porter, pp. 2-3). In this period Italy was seen more as an enticing, if somewhat decadent contrast to the increasingly strict moral environment of Northern Europe. This tendency to polarise North and South is the first major influence that affected Northern European society. It helped to define the direction that protestant countries took, with their emphasis on diligence and industrial development, and a certain iconoclastic push for reform and renewal. The Enlightenment took place to some extent in opposition to the backward-looking and tradition bound society of Roman Catholic Italy. In one particular area, however, the example of Italy provided significant impetus for growth and development. Innovations in the visual arts in Italy were universally admired, bringing a new appreciation of beauty and style that was alien to the north. The movement that we now label the Renaissance which had started in Italy back in the late fourteenth century, had already spread out through the whole of Europe by middle of the seventeenth century. ... aissance which had started in Italy back in the late fourteenth century, had already spread out through the whole of Europe by middle of the seventeenth century. Grand Tour travellers, marvelling at the artefacts which had been produced in this period, became avid collectors, bringing Italian taste to their country homes in the North. This is perhaps the most obvious contribution that the Grand Tour made to society: artists and sculptors in particular took their inspiration from the south and began to see Italy as the home of refinement and taste, as well as the best place to obtain teaching in artistic techniques. A third major influence that arrived in the north from Italy was a new tradition for travel writing which transformed literary genres in Europe beyond recognition. The intrepid Grand Tour travellers kept journals, describing the scenery that they traversed, and the people they met, in lively tones which were the precursor of the modern novel. In eighteenth century Laurence Sterne (1716-1768), for example, developed a descriptive narrative style in the first person which was much imitated. His concept of the “sentimental journey” embraced not only the intellectual and factual discoveries that people made, but also the emotional experiences that began to transform their characters. The narrator Yorick is a clergyman, and this rather uptight persona is at the same time appalled and fascinated by the appearance and behaviour of the people he meets on his travels. In some ways this mirrors the ambiguity that existed at that time between protestant Britain and a more relaxed and vibrant Italy. This more personal, and intimate, kind of writing marks a new sensibility which in the North became known as the Romantic movement. Later writers, such as Gustave
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The agreement contains a credit default contracts that include credit default swaps, default index contracts, credit default options, and credit default basket options. One can use these as part of the mechanism that is collateralized by debt obligations. The goal should be to establish a price for a given risk and controlling credit based on risk. The credit can be allowed by minimization of risk. Credit controllers should develop versatile tools that transfer risk away from a lender’s balance sheet. d) With reference to the proposed debt counseling business, illustrate and explain exactly how you would organize the debt counseling operation, taking particular care to explain how and when you would receive payment for...
The term “Machiavellian” certainly contains negative connotations. This is because “Machiavelli does not pretend to discuss right and wrong from the standpoint of the moralist; he simply states that a certain line of action succeeds and a different one fails” (Thayer 477). For this, he has been called a cynic.
However, there has been further controversy concerning this work as of late. Recently, the idea has been put forth that “Machiavelli’s ethical stance was unrealistic and, since he was in a position to know better, irrational” (39). The idea is that Machiavelli knew that he was sending Lorenzo de Medici a document that would help him to take control of his state or on...
...How did radio in the 1960s mark - and even actively promote - the changing social order in the UK and US? The 1960s saw perhaps the greatest social changes in history. For the first time young people and their parents were divided. They had different cultural ideas and little middle ground to understand each other. The music tastes, social conventions and political beliefs of the older generation had been violently rejected by a disaffected youth which sought to establish a new social order. These were times of change, times of disaffection and times in which a whole new social network was being established. This took the form of underground movements, independent press and pirate radio. This essay will focus on this final tool... did radio...
...Analyse and account for the market position of M&S which has adapted to recent changes in the economic climate effectively. Table of Contents Introduction 3
Marks & Spencer: a Brief Overview 3
Literature review 4
Effect of recession on M&S 7
Changes Introduced in Response to Recession by Marks & Spencer 8
Future Outlook of Marks & Spencer 11
The economic cycle or business cycle is subjected to different phases that include slump, recession, recover and boom. Companies face different market circumstances in different phases and they react accordingly. In order to sustain in the market, they have to adopt different strategies so that they are able to generate enough revenue...
...Full and number of The Swing Movement: Music of Yesterday, Influence of Today Young people today think aboutswing music, if they think about it at all, as the music of their grandparents. What one hears on the Grammies today hardly seems to resemble the sounds that emanate from grandfather’s old 78’s on the even older record player sitting in his living room. His contention that “those were the days” does not resonate to a new generation several times removed. And yet, when one analyzes the swing movement in the context of its time, the innovation and evolutionary movement it brought to American music can not be denied—an evolution still on going.
Swing music, an extension of earlier blues and jazz movements, arrived on the scene...
Currently, Italy faces numerous social issues that have been disrupting its overall flourishing to a substantial extent. For instance, one of the current social issues observed in Italy is the rising number of children in families below the poverty line. In the rising globalization era, where education and cultural diversity is treated as a key attribute of an advanced society, Italy has also been facing social issues related to its education system as well as its cultural contexts. Experts have been of the view that these issues were due to the effects of collision observed between the conservative social structure of Italy and the contemporary changes demanded in the 21st-century context (Associazione Italiana Di Sociologia, 200...
...WASTE MANAGEMENT-MSW COMPOSITION By DIFFERENCE in the percentage of biodegradable materials between Nigeria and Italy
Biodegradable wastes normally refer to the kind of wastes that can be broken down into its underlying original constituents by the prevailing living microorganisms and other corresponding living things. Biodegradable wastes are commonly municipal wastes arising from household wastes. Moreover, other biodegradables are dead plants and animals whilst household wastes that are biodegradable includes the food waste, papers, green waste, wastes such as wastes from slaughterhouse, manure, sewage, human waste and biodegradable plastics (Choi, 2007, pp112-156).
Comparison of the differences in percentages of biodegradable...
A teacher is a psychologist who must find a separate approach to every single individual he meets on the way. Thus, teaching is a complex and multifaceted task that requires knowledge, communication skills, and special personality traits. However, being a good teacher is not having an inborn talent, it means being able to improve constantly. In this paper, I want to argue that constant self-development is one of the crucial components that make a great teacher as every quality required from a great teacher is a matter of practice and experience. There exist certain prerequisites, certain “musts” for being a good teacher. A subject matter knowledge is considered a core of the teacher`s profession. The teacher is s...
... The Difference Between Religiousness and Faith in Flannery O`Connor`s “Revelation” The short story “Revelation” by O`Connorexamines one of the most delicate aspects of faith in God – its deep essence and verity. It seems that for most religions adherence to certain rituals and literal following the Scriptures can be enough for considering oneself a true believer but everything is not as simple as it seems. But even interpretation of the Holy texts requires knowledge and ability to grasp the deep meaning behind metaphors. Religion is just the coverage of faith while what real faith means is the major question for all those who believe in God. The principle character of O`Connor`s “Revelation” Mrs. Turpin seems to be perfect Catholic woman...
... of great interest to women and men in the town. It is possible to say that Faulkner makes us understand that there will be no real events in the story- the main things will happen inside human souls. He also makes a reader understand that death and a house will be the principle topics of the text apart from inner life of Emily which we will be able to understand only from her relationship with people and things.
So Mrs. Emily turns out to be rather eccentric woman- having been raised by a strict father who thought that no men would be good enough for his daughter – she grew up self-sufficient and weird. She was beautiful and many men wanted to marry her, she also had an influential father. When Emily`s father dies she refused to accept...
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