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Utilitarianism with the Taxation Policy - Term Paper Example

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The current paper examines the relationship between the utilitarianism and the policies followed for the redistribution of tax by the countries in the international community. In order to achieve a more integrated result, the relevant theories are being presented and compared under their role…
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Utilitarianism with the Taxation Policy
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Download file to see previous pages The effects of political rights to the formulation of the societal structures have been intensive and continuous throughout the existence of humanity. The study of Clark (2001, 467) showed that the dynamics of early nineteenth century liberal thought reflected the political task of uniting owners and workers in a coalition to oppose aristocratic power. In an effort to broaden liberalism's base of support, theorists sought both to defend property rights and to oppose fixed status, hierarchy, and arbitrary authority. Property rights were acknowledged to be a social convention rather than a natural right, so the rules of justice were open to revision in light of new knowledge and changed circumstances. However, existing rights had to be given legitimacy in order to appeal to property owners. Moreover, as Clark (2001) found the challenge confronting liberal theorists was to formulate a theory of justice in which rights were sufficiently secure to satisfy owners and sufficiently flexible to appeal to laborers. The research on Bentham's work on utilitarianism by Clark (2001) led to the result that the work of Bentham crystallizes the theoretical opposition to natural rights and for this reason in order to generate consensus on questions of justice, Bentham sought a single, incontrovertible criterion of right. He rejected appeals to right reason, common sense, natural law, or moral sentiment on the grounds that they provided no "extrinsic ground" for moral judgments.
On the other hand, Markovits found (2003, 3306) that the simplest forms of utilitarianism, which tie people's fortunes together by sacrificing individual fortunes whenever this maximizes total or average fortunes, also treat people equally by insisting that no person's fortune counts for more than any other person's. But the utilitarian account of equal treatment falls well short of egalitarian nonsubordination because it never compares individual fortunes against one another. Utilitarianism (on this account) is concerned exclusively with totals or averages; it takes no distributive view. As John Rawls has said, utilitarianism ignores the "distinction between persons," which is precisely the idea from which egalitarianism begins. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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