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Contract between criminological theories - Essay Example

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Name: Tutor: Course: Date: University: Contract between criminological theories Introduction Criminology has over time focussed on the reasons that motivate people to commit a crime. The debate on why people choose to commit crimes has been central to the issue regarding the best way to prevent and handle crime…
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Download file to see previous pages Some of the most common approaches that explain crime include the classicism and the positivism approaches. Under the classicism approach, there are control theories, which explain the causes of crime. With regard to the positivism approach, there is biological positivism, which can be regarded as instrumental in explaining the causes of crime. This paper will explore the usefulness of biological positivism and control theory in explaining assault as offense. The usefulness of control theory in explaining assault as a crime Unlike other theories of crime, which aim at exploring why people commit crime, control theories aim at examining the reasons why many people do not commit a crime. According to control theorists, the reasons why people commit crime should not be explained because people tend to suffer from some weaknesses that make them commit crime. Control theories focus on controlling factors, which can be considered as absent in people’s personality. While explaining crime, the control theory focuses on the interplay between sociological, psychological, and psychiatric factors. The most notable theorist who expounded the control theory is Travis Hirschi who developed the theory in 1969 (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990). Control theory can be termed as instrumental in explaining assault as an offence. ...
As such, those who choose to carry out assault are motivated to do so by the choices they make. This shows that the social control theory can be said to be connected more with the classical school that the positivist school (Gottfredson & Hirschi 2001, p.70). The social control theory holds that there tends to be shared beliefs, norms, as well as values in the society. Criminals who engage in assault share the belief that there is a need to follow the rules in society. Moreover, based on the social control theory, offense such as assault can be regarded as behaviour that can be predicted, but the society cannot control it. The social control theory contends that although every person is taught to conform to the norms of society, offenders find it hard to cope to these norms. Rather, they break down the rules even if they know the sanctions and consequences that result from breaking the rules. Based on the social control theory, crime can be seen to result from the lack of relationships with other people in society. Therefore, delinquency such as assault results from the failure to engage in these relationships, which leads to the freeing of individuals from social constraints (Siegel 2012, p.45). The social control theory is useful in understanding crime with its explanation of the role of parenting in the acquisition of delinquent behaviour. Based on the theory, family bonds and social bonds play a crucial role in determining whether people will become offenders. At a young age, children’s social control emanates from interactions with their parents. Poor parental attachment can be regarded as a cause of delinquent behaviour. In this regard, children who are overly attached to their parents have the possibility of not ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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