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Criminological Theories A comparison Between Control Theories and Scocial control Theories of Crime - Essay Example

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Topic: Criminological Theories: A comparison Between Control Theories a and social control Theories of Crime.
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Criminological Theories A comparison Between Control Theories and Scocial control Theories of Crime
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Download file to see previous pages The social control they describe is not through Laws, but through Beliefs and societal Norms. However, these norms could later evolve into Laws, ethics, Etiquettes and Customs . The Control is effected through establishing conformity and compliance to these norms.
SOCIAL CONTROL THEORIES are viewed along two perspectives. The Macro social and Micro social perspectives . The Macro Social Perspective examines the Formal Control Systems which include the Legal systems, Law enforcers, lobbies which influence laws, which exercise control over the society. Micro Social Perspective, studies the INFORMAL control systems. exercised by Families, religious and educational institution and peer groups. This Informal control manifests as Bonding ,Re Integrative Shaming, Attachment, and Learning through Role Models.
The control theories focus on a person's Relationship to their parents, teachers, parish priests and coaches who act as agents of socialization -.A child's Effective interaction with these agents translates into bonds with society.(Hirschi1960) Control Theories study the internalization of Moral codes and the stakes and ties in the community the individuals develops, which make them to voluntarily limit their deviant behaviour.These are Informal controls exercised by social and familial bonds. It is more a "self concept".
The most influential among the Control Theories are, John Bolwlby 's Attachment Theory, Travis Hirschi's Social Bonds Theory , the Age Graded Life course Theory of Sampson and Laube and the General Theory of Crime by Gottferson and Hirschi (1999)
The Control Theory of Delinquency was presented by Travis Hirsche in 1969. It emerged from the Social Disorganisation Theory (Western Criminology Review)which was slowly losing its prestige at that time. Hirschi took his cue from this theory which held that Disorganised communities generate crime as informal social controls have broken down.It was John Bowlby who first floated the emotional aspect in social control in his Attachment Theory in 1969.Hirschi synthesizes both these perspectives .
Hirschi's Control Theory posits that it is not so much the Individual's personality, but his social Relationships and social bonds which determine the deviance or conformity of his Behaviour. Absence of Control exercised by those bonds left him free to weigh the profits against risk . Attachment to others make him less likely to be deviant.
Both Hirschi and Bowlby stress Parental upbringing in instilling socialization. The accrual of emotional investment by parents develops Empathy in the individual , which heightens his control and help him to Desist from acts violating the conventions.
.The other Control theories, The General Theory of Crime, The Age Graded Life Course Theory that followed, acknowledged the SELF concept .They explained how at a Micro perspective, Informal social bonds which are at first external, become internalized . Gottferson and Hirschi (1990) , and later,Sampson and Laube (1993)in their Age Graded Life Course Perspective said that there is a relationship of causes between the later deviant behavior and the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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