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he horrors of the two succeeding world wars (I and II) within the span of 30 years only that had dehumanized human civilizations, had shown how dreadful humans can be. Committed never to let such inhumanity happen again, world leaders of the United Nations (UN) had agreed to uphold human rights…
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Extract of sample "Human Rights: Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights"
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Cognizant of the vital role education plays in uplifting human rights and freedom and in developing human resources, Article 26 of the UDHR guarantees the inherent right to education of every person, regardless of sex, race, creed, and wealth, anywhere at all times. I. UDHR Article 26: The Right to Education A. Historical Context The UDHR, in which the right to education had been formally recognized, is an historic document, manifesting the UN’s consensual understanding of human dignity and value (Gleeson, par. 8). It had been an offshoot of the world leaders’ realization for the need to guarantee human rights anywhere at all times in order to prevent the recurrence of the abhorrent atrocities the two succeeding World Wars had inflicted against humanity (Bailey, par. 2-4). In fact, the formulation of Article 26 had gone through lengthy debates because the CHR was concerned how the educational system was used during WWII for Nazi indoctrination (Arajarvi 553). The UDHR was then meant specifically to define the human rights and fundamental freedoms referred to in the UN Charter (Oswald, Durham & Bates 72). CHR’s first draft of the UDHR, later known as the Geneva draft, was completed for less than two years of composing its entire text. This was then presented to the UN in September 1948 for final drafting, participated in by 50 member-states. Finally, on the evening of December 10, 19481 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris, the UN’s General Assembly (GA) in its resolution 217 A (III) approved the UDHR, as it is, without opposition, but with eight abstentions (six communist states, Saudi Arabia and South Africa) (Bailey, par. 23; UN, par. 6). In 1950, to propagate the declaration worldwide, the UN GA (UN, par. 1) – based on its Resolution 217 D– had called on all member-states including the UN Secretary General, the UN Specialized Agencies and international NGOs to make the widest possible publicity with clear explanation of the UDHR, which made the UDHR available in 300 languages (Claude 214). Today, the UDHR has become the cornerstone of international and domestic human rights laws (Gleeson, par. 1), but finalizing it into its current form had not gone without much debate and numerous revisions, as what had happened to Article 26. B. Structures, Processes, and Legislations From the UNESCO’s account, the writing and approval of Article 26 had gone through a series of amendments and revisions before it had been approved in its final form. Drafting of the UDHR was tasked by the UN’s General Assembly (GA) on the UN’s Commission on Human Rights (CHR),2 which to the approval of ECOSOC in March 1947, set-up its nine-member drafting committee (DC) composed of William Hodgson of Australia; John Humphrey of Canada – the UN Human Rights Division Director, who prepared the UDHR blueprint; Hernan Santa Cruz of Chile; Peng Chung Chang of China – the elected Vice-Chairman of the committee; Rene Cassin of France – the composer of the first draft; Charles Malik of Lebanon – the elected Committee Rapporteur; Charles Dukes of the United Kingdom, Alexandre Bogomolov of the USSR, and Eleanor Roosevelt, widow of the US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who on April 1946 was elected the committee chair. (93-94) Writing of the UDHR was based on three basic documents– the Secretariat’s draft outline of an International Bill of Human Rights (IBHR), the UK’s prepared IBHR draft plus a draft Resolution, and the US’s set of proposals for the rewording the Secretariat’s draft outline. Confronted with the formidable task of uniting these three
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The author’s concern regarding aviation safety involves the amazing lack of communication skills exhibited by failed cockpit crews. Helmreich cites several accidents in which members of the crew sensed problems, but failed to communicate concerns urgently or properly. As a professor of Psychology at the University of Texas, Austin, since 1966, he has taught interpersonal communications. Helmreich’s study concluded that the crews tend to mitigate any potential problems; however, some situations can lead to disaster, such as:
1. Focus on the wrong problem.
2. Failed communications
3. Technology and its misuse in the cockpit.
The root cause of these incidents is failure of redundant systems. For example, a co-pilot who always...
... period, “the data on women writers suggests that the economic and commercial vision of the Enlightenment and Revolution opened up possibilities for female participation in an absolutely central arena of modern public life that was at odds with the dominant male conception of appropriate relations between the sexes. (42)”
How do we relate these Enlightenment values with the values of our times? In the modern days, the legitimacy of the struggle for women’s rights is largely accepted. Women are believed to be equal to men in most respects – they can work, vote, run for public office, and aspire towards their goals. Feminists all over the world have fought for these rights and have fought for the mainstreaming of gender values. Admittedly...
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In their article, Employment Testing and Human Resource Management, C.O. Ajila and Linus Okafor give a detailed and informative account of employment testing. However, the relevance of such testing in Human Resource Management is given only superficial treatment.
ARTICLE EVALUATION: Employment Testing and Human Resource Management.
In their article, Employment Testing and Human Resource Management, C.O. Ajila and Linus Okafor explore the historical antecedents of psychological testing, basic testing concepts, the types of tests used in industry, and the relevance of these tests in the field of Human Resource Management. While Ajila and Okafor give...
It is necessary for the professional stage to have skilled people with the required talent. It can be made possible to obtain such skill by buying them from outside the organization; that is, recruitment. However, it is also possible to achieve this by training and developing the present employees. Human Resource Development (HRD) is a planned approach that is used in order to invest in human capital. The reason that HRD is important is that one of the most essential factors for the development of a successful industry in the UK happens to the investment is skills. It draws on other human resource processes, for example, resourcing and performance evaluation, so that the real and probable talent can be recognized. HRD presen...
John Holland has developed a theory that says that the people of a particular person are suited to a particular job. And not just that, but when people having similar personalities work together in a personality suitable environment, it leads to the creation of a very positive, creative and productive relationship and works place. To understand the essence behind the theory of Vocation and Congruency, we will take a look at the three important components of his theory. They are 1) Personality Types, 2) Environment Types and 3) Holland’s Hexagon. Holland’s six Personality Types:John Holland says that people personality can be divided into six types according to their nature, thinking pat...
The Norms on the Responsibility of Trans-national Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with Regard to HumanRights UN Doc E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/12/Rev.2
The UN Global Compact and Ten Principles available at www.unglobalcompact.org accessed 26 May 2009
UniversalDeclaration of HumanRights (UDHR) adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1948 (available at www.un.org/en/documents/udhr
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...Behavior of Activities of Thymidine Metabolizing Enzymes in Human Leukemia-Lymphoma Cells This paper discusses the modulation of activities of four important enzymes involved in the metabolism of thymidine in malignant human leukemia-lymphoma cells as compared to the activities of the enzymes in normal human lymphocytes. The enzymes studied were the catabolic enzymes dihydrothymine dehydrogenase (DHT DH) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) which play crucial roles in nucleic acid metabolism by regulating the availability of thymidine, and thymidine kinase (TK) and thymidylate synthase (TS) which are cellular “salvage” enzymes involved in DNA synthesis. The studies were conducted with cell cultures obtained from 13 human leukemia-lymphoma cell...
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The article entitled A Theory of Motivation written by Abraham H. Maslow initially began with a brief summary of a previous paper, also written by Maslow in 1943, with the same title. The author enumerated thirteen conclusions to the previous paper on his theory of human motivation with underlying frameworks focusing on the integrated wholeness of the organism manifesting human needs arranged in a hierarchy of prepotency as the driving force for motivation. As Maslow averred, the present paper aimed to “formulate a positive theory of motivation which will satisfy these theoretical demands and at the same time conform to the known facts; clinical and observational, as well as experimental” (Maslow, n.d., 148...
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The modern world has become increasingly more competitive and globalized, making it more challenging for organizations to maintain a competitive edge or achieve the position of a market leader in their field. Most organizations now recognize that a major source of competitive advantage in this densely-packed market is the organization’s human resource pool. In many areas, the only means by which the company can gain certain distinctive competencies is through the appropriate use of the developed and professional skills inherent in the hired employees, allowing these skills to be practiced through proper organizational structures and organized through specific managerial techniques. One...
Music has been a part of human civilization right from the time of the antiquities (ancient Greek and Indian civilizations) and has always been considered as an integral part of life. Music as ‘arts’ has undergone changes from time to time, evolving and adapting itself to the complexities and cultural context of each different era, the social norms, varying religious dictates, and technological innovations. In the context of the modern 21st century, we find that music has finally moved out from the realms of being relevant to only arts and culture, and has taken the form of a highly organized and technology-oriented, profit-making industry, controlled by music companies and event managers. The definition of music has a...
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