Conversational messages - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
I’m sorry if I forgot to bring the book I borrowed from you. I helped out my sister in her homework that’s why I was late. My meeting with the directress was extended, that’s why I was not able to come in to class on time. These…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.3% of users find it useful
Conversational messages
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Conversational messages"

I submitted the paper just two hours late! I’m sorry if I forgot to bring the book I borrowed from you. I helped out my sister in her homework that’swhy I was late. My meeting with the directress was extended, that’s why I was not able to come in to class on time. These are all examples of apologies and excuses. Everyone is familiar with giving excuses and apologies. And we are always hoping that our excuse or apology will be accepted. Excuses and apologies are called accounts. The use and process of giving accounts depend on one’s social values. How we give out accounts and how it is accepted or not depend on one’s culture. We tend to use the different types of accounts whenever our behavior or action is subjected to a valuative inquiry, which is a request for an explanation for an inappropriate or unexpected behavior, or failure to adhere to an expected or appropriate behavior (Cody & Dunn, p. 263). That is exactly why accounts are based on cultural and social expectations.
The use of accounts is associated with the politeness theory. The politeness theory considers two concepts, face work and politeness forms. People prefer apologies as preferred speech acts for receivers compared to excuses, justifications and denials (Cody & Dunn, p. 266). The face work is an important concept in the politeness theory. There are two types of face work, the positive face and the negative face. Positive face reflects appreciation and respect for each communicator’s role while the negative face reflects one’s desire to be free of constraints or obligations (Cody & Dunn, p. 266). This can be better understood through a sample situation. Let’s say you arrived late for a meeting and you say, I’m sorry I’m late. I know how important your time is so let’s get started immediately. That is a positive face. A negative face will be like this, I’m sorry for being late but the heavy traffic caught up with me. You have made an apology followed by an excuse that indicates you do not have control over what happened. You wanted to be free of the negative consequences of being late.
The use of apologies and excuses depend on the cultural and social values important for the communicators. The expected behavior of Americans may be different from the expected behavior of Japanese when it comes to giving apologies. In an American or British setting, formality may be perceived as impolite among intimates, like family members, because it may appear as sarcasm or a mockery (Ogiermann, p. 37). Japanese preferred saying nothing to avoid confrontations, especially when it involves strangers, their relational closeness increases the likelihood that they will say something (Cody & Dunn, p. 270). Americans preferred a more direct and public approach, perceiving them as more sincere than just displaying correct character that Japanese are concerned about (Cody & Dunn, p. 270).
The politeness theory is also connected with image restoration as one uses apologies rather than excuses, justifications or denial in order to shift from negative to positive face (Ogiermann, p. 51). With apology, compared to excuse, there is an attempt to restore balance between the communicators. Another theory that can explain the use of accounts is the attribution theory. This theory explains why we tend to accept excuses that have uncontrollable reasons rather than excuses that are intentional and controllable (Cody & Dunn, p. 273). For example, telling your boss you were late for the meeting because the cab you were riding had a flat tire is more acceptable than telling him you were late because you woke up late.
Apologies and excuses cannot be removed from our daily communication. We would always use them. What is important is that we know and understand that the use of these accounts have consequences and are dependent on our actions and the values that both communicators have. And the important question we have to answer is: how do we make sure that we are only using these accounts to restore balance and not to disrupt it even more, according to the image restoration theory, attribute theory and politeness theory.
Works Cited
Cody, M. and Dunn, D. “Accounts.” Pp. 263 – 284. Ed. Whaley, B. and Samter, W. Explaining communication: Contemporary theories and exemplars. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2007.
Ogiermann, E. On apologizing in negative and positive politeness cultures. PA: John Benjamins, B.V., 2009. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Conversational messages Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Conversational messages Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words. Retrieved from
(Conversational Messages Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
Conversational Messages Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words.
“Conversational Messages Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Conversational messages

Messages in Iliad

...Messages in Iliad Iliad is a poem set during the Trojan War and since ancient times it has been credited to Homer asthe composer. It narrates of the events towards the end of this war, though, in essence, it mentions a lot of heroes, villains and places. It involves events between gods and the humans that help shape the war fundamentally. The poem has highlighted the use of messengers as the main mode of communication during this war. Messengers were used to transmit information from the gods to other gods, from gods to humans and from humans to humans. This paper will show the instances where messengers have been used and their impact towards the reaction to the given message. It will show that where...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Practicing I Messages

...? Practicing “I” Messages Practicing “I” Messages Situation Four of your employees share a single telephone line. You are aware that one of them, Harry R., is especially long-winded on the phone and talks for as long as 15 minutes. This prevents others from placing outgoing phone calls and ties up the line, preventing customers from getting through. In this particular situation, as the supervisor or manager of the four employees, the behavior of Harry R. would make me feel extremely concerned, taking into perspective, the points of views of the three other employees, the interests of the customers, and the overall effect of Harry R.’s behavior in the accomplishment of organizational goals. As such, I...
3 Pages(750 words)Coursework

Persuasive Messages Letter

...Capsim Management Simulations, Inc.® 540 West Frontage Road, Northfield, IL 60093 847.501.2888 Mr. Gregory Wallace Department Head ITAM Department Dear Mr. Wallace; It recently came to our companys attention that your business school is currently in search of an effective Business Simulation Tool. Capsim Management Simulations Inc. has been the leader in Business Simulation tools for the past 15 years. Our outstanding and unmatched educational effectiveness and unlimited support has proven to be one of the most effective teaching tools in the market today. As an internet based simulation, the system has been adopted by nearly 400,000 students at over 550 schools including noted business schools such as Harvard, Wharton, UC... Management...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

Negative Messages & Collaborative Writing

...The Rash of Rashes Alert Introduction. In this study we will use a set of laid out questions to lead us to the outline of our message. These questions relate to our target audience for the message we intend to create as well as our expectations and the audience’s expectations and a host of many other guidelines. Section 1: Planning - The main aim of creating this message is to correct the misconceptions that might have been caused by the appearance of rashes at the spots where tagless labels came into contact with body. - Am specifically aiming at assuring the public that the company is doing everything possible to look at this situation and make corrections if need be. -The underlying...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Revising Messages

...Revising Messages Exercise 8 a. Response to your call for technical support on cable internet service Concerning your request for technical support on your cable internet, we’re trying to get you back to business quickly by troubleshooting to identify each customer’s specific problem. Kindly enter your computer specifications in the fields provided on the online support, exact times when you experience slow downloads, and ensure you resubmit the form after completing all the fields to enable us to assist you. b. Subject: Compensation on lost Luggage This is about your message to us concerning the difficulty you had collecting your luggage at Denver International Airport. We apologize for any sort of...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Direct and indirect messages

...Direct and indirect messages SUBJECT: Guide to your retreat package I would like to inquire for your rates on a retreat package for our staff on either of the following periods; December 15-19 or January 12-16. We are a team of 55 marketing and media professionals who are interested in conference/retreat/vacation facilities for four days. We will be accompanied with our partners or significant others and thus I would like to find out if you can provide us with approximately 50 rooms. I would also like to find out if you can provide 2 conference rooms that can accommodate above 25 participants for one and a half days. I would also like to know if we can host a banquet for about 85 people on one evening during our possible...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

Negative Messages

... 201-548Hillsdale Street, Regina, SK S32 0A2. Dear Steven Chan, Hope you are fine. Thank you for your letter which you send to me. First, I would like to express my sincere apologies for the inconvenience of the rental car. Actually, I have been most privilege to have you as my customer. In fact, I have enjoyed working for your services and I would also appreciate the most if you came again when you visit our country (Krizan, 228). It is not my intention to break this news to you. Though we never warned you about the acknowledgment cards that they do not cover the damage caused because it had a large SUV, it is not our accountability to the students educate customers of their insurances and to tell them what is covered... 201-548Hillsdale...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

Analyzing Messages

...The second correspondence was sent earlier than the first email. It is actually the reference for Megan’s reply. In this email, Spencer, the sender informs Megan of his company’s business expansion. Specifically, he explains that they have newly established a branch in San Francisco, California. Notably, the email is formal yet warm in tone, considering the client-service provider relationship. Spencer opens and closes his email in the conventional manner. He started with greetings. This establishes the formality of the letter and functions to establish respect of a service provider to a client. Unlike Megan who immediately responds to the email by Spencer, the latter takes time to greet the client. Likewise, the...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Compare film messages

...Comparison of Film Messages Examining the message between “On the Waterfront” and “The Front” The “Waterfront” film gives a story comprising of heavy and massive corruption happening in the dock union. The leaders of the union are abusing their power by engaging in exploitation of workers as well as taking part in various vicious crimes. The organisation of these leaders is very poor, looked in great terror that leaves the entire community in great silence. Terry Malloy, who becomes the hero of the film, takes a bold move to stop wrong doings and prevailing terror. The gravity of the corruption in this community is illustrated in the many murders happening as well as selective hiring for people to work...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Sustainability Principles

...(Benabou & Tirole, 2010). The mobile campaigns have informed the customers on events happening at the stores, Debenhams promotions and sales activities as well as the offering of discounted vouchers. During the customers’ requisition of vouchers via mobile phones, the company experiences increased redemption rates as compared to the printed vouchers. Upon expiry of the customers mobile vouchers, there is an automated updates sent to the customers so as to redeem their vouchers. The mobile and email conversational messages have been able to achieve 200% success in its sales volume (Milton & Soares, 2010). Conclusion The research has outlined the objectives, principles and concepts of the company in...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Conversational messages for FREE!

Contact Us