Face Negotiation Theory - Essay Example

Comments (1) Cite this document
Summary
This paper "Face Negotiation Theory" focuses on the fact that this theory was created to better comprehend the causes of conflict in terms of the cultural as well as an individual understanding of identity management. ‘Face’ describes the assumed sense of complimentary social self-worth.  …
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER95.4% of users find it useful
Face Negotiation Theory
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Face Negotiation Theory"

Download file to see previous pages Facework refers to particular non-verbal as well as verbal messages that help in maintaining or re-building the loss of face. Different aspects of the Face-Negotiation Theories Anxiety and uncertainty can result in conflict that brings discomfort. According to Ting-Toomey’s face-negotiation theory, it is mainly based on individualism and collectivism (Ting -Toomey, 2010). Harry Triandis states that three important distinctions between collectivistic and individualistic cultures include the different ways in which members perceive the concepts of goals, self, and duty. More than 60% of the world’s population is born to collectivist cultures such as those in the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Latin America; while the remainder, in nations such as Switzerland and Germany, live in individualist cultures (Ting -Toomey, 2010). For collectivist cultures such as that of Japan, it is presumed that even the decisions made by the citizens on an individual basis end up affecting the community. This means that it is constructive for the accepted norms of the group to determine individual choices. The Japanese ‘We’ identity is comparable to the ‘I’ identity of the individualistic American society. In the use of meditation methods in the two types of cultures, the mediator encourages antagonists to deal directly with their differences and keeps the conversation focused on the possibility of a final agreement. Ting –Toomey states that in a culture, the citizens who make it up differ in terms of how much they identify with group solidarity or individualistic self-sufficiency. Timing-Toomey uses the terms ‘independent’ as well as ‘interdependent self’ to identify the extent to which a culture’s members view themselves as being autonomous or in relation to others around them. The psychologists Shinobu Kitayama and Hazel Markus refer to this concept as self-image or self-construal (Ting -Toomey, 2010). In seemingly individualistic cultures such as the American culture, there may be certain changes that are noted in different ethnic groups. There are ethnic immigrants, for instance, that still practice collectivist habits and bring up their children in a collectivist culture, and to be highly interdependent. These select immigrant populations also encourage their citizens to engage in self-values that are interdependent and that highlight relational connectedness. It is common for the Western world to regard the maintenance of ‘face’ to be a predominantly Asian preoccupation. However, it is more common in other cultures as well, as it can be said to be a different definition of the self-concept. The Max Plank Institute of Psycholinguistics’ Stephen Levinson and Penelope Brown have defined the concept of ‘face’ as being the public image of self that society’s members wish to claim as being their own (Ting -Toomey, 2010). Lin Yutang, a Taiwanese author, on the other hand, defined face as being a psychological image that can be lost, granted to an individual, and even struggled for (Ting -Toomey, 2010). For Ting-Toomey, the concept of face is simply descriptive of the projective image of an individual’s self in a relational setting. While people in individualistic societies struggle to preserve their own best ‘images’, those in collectivist cultures tend to focus on preserving the good ‘images’ of their fellow man.    ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Face Negotiation Theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.)
Face Negotiation Theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/journalism-communication/1495564-face-negotiation-theory
(Face Negotiation Theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
Face Negotiation Theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words. https://studentshare.org/journalism-communication/1495564-face-negotiation-theory.
“Face Negotiation Theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/journalism-communication/1495564-face-negotiation-theory.
  • Cited: 1 times
Comments (1)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
mo
monica39 added comment 2 months ago
Student rated this paper as
Great work done on the "Face Negotiation Theory". I think it is the best example I have seen so far.

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Face Negotiation Theory

Face Negotiation Theory

...Face Negotiation Theory Continuously, the concept of face have been used by different in explaining linguistic politeness, embarrassment episodes, apology acts, rapport building, requesting behaviors, and in conflict interactions. The origin of face negotiation theory stemmed from the dissatisfaction of the author with the mainstream interpersonal conflict communication literature in the early 1980s. In the mainstream, research on Western based workplace and interpersonal conflict communication literature, self-disclosure, and the twin ideologies of conflict confrontation reflected strong endorsement (Oetzel and...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Decoding the face negotiation theory

...? DECODING THE FACE NEGOTIATION THEORY The Face Negotiation Theory can be rather technical and It was introduced by Stella Ting-Toomey, a communications professor at California State University, aimed at improving communication for resolving conflicts. “Face” is a metaphor for public self-image. “Conflict” is “a form of intense interpersonal and intrapersonal dissonance,” between people with opposing goals, needs, and values (Beauvais, n.d.). To better understand the theory, let us apply it to the story of the Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama is a holy personage in Tibet in Western China. As a two-year old...
2 Pages(500 words)Speech or Presentation

Negotiation

...? Order 548031 Topic: Negotiation any topic In any organization, the workers need to be basically sound and industrious; also basic conditions needto be created for the workers to become basically sound and industrious. We are a banking organization and owing to recession and slackness in the area of deposit mobilization as well as lending, the management introduced various measures of economy to cut down the expenditure. We are an institution with total staff strength of about two thousand employees and officers. Our institution maintains five holiday homes, and the employees are allowed 15 days stay in a year, with free boarding and lodging for a family not exceeding 4 members. As a measure of economy the Management...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Face Negotiation Theory and Content Domains

...David Zaremba Wilkins 13th December, Face Negotiation Theory and Content Domains “Face” is the social image one portrays to the others around them. One’s “face” is portrayed throughout every conversation one has on a daily basis. “Face” is portrayed differently by many different people. Each and every culture relies differently on “face.” There are also different aspects of “face,” which are referred to as the “Face Content Domains.” Face Content Domains refer to the different levels of facework, and the extent to which an individual may go to influence the opinion...
7 Pages(1750 words)Term Paper

Negotiation

...consideration. However, it is not applicable when there is a conflict demanding a solving approach. Lastly, the collaborating style has high cooperativeness and assertiveness, often summarized as win-win scenario, and in this case, parties work towards accomplishing their desired goals and outcomes. This style is appropriate when there is a complex conflict and a high demand of having creative ideas of both parties. Nevertheless, this resolution style requires a lot of time in making the final decision. 2. What three (and only three) points of advice would you give to your best friend facing a negotiation? Or, stated differently, set forth how you would describe to your best friend the Getting To Yes...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Negotiation

...is recognized as uncooperative and is recommended to use only in a small amount, as it is counterproductive. Avoidance tactics, however, can be implemented to attempt to gain concessions from the other bargaining party. The final conflict handling mode is accommodating. This mode is unassertive and cooperative. It is necessary to not be over-accommodating as this can result in dysfunction. Still, accommodation can be used in small amounts effectively. 2. What three (and only three) points of advice would you give your best friend facing a negotiation? Or, stated differently, set forth how you would describe to your best friend the Getting To Yes model of negotiations knowing that he or...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Negotiation

...the negotiator to justify his stand-point and obtain the desired outcome from the process of negotiation. Definition of terms in the literature The foundations of the theory of negotiation are behavioural decision making, decision analysis, game theory and negotiation analysis. According to the empirical literature, negotiation is a formal process of conflict resolution between two or more parties where the parties are involved in a power game in order to negotiate with the counter parties for reaching the desired outcome. This could be explained by the game theory for strategic decision...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Negotiation

...Now or Then Negotiation is an interaction of influences. We are involved with negotiations throughout life. Knowledge is power and if one can have access to information, negotiations can be turned to advantage. However by keeping emotions in check and by avoiding antagonism, this weakness or disadvantage can be dealt with effectively. Being a real estate broker, I negotiate with people all the time to discuss deals. About four years ago, I teamed-up with another real estate agent, who had been in the field for over ten years in CA. This was the opportunity of getting involved in residential investing on behalf of investors from California. Frank Hu, the partner was...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Negotiation

...of the IBN bargaining process, the emotions and tensions were made to surface, after which both sides of the negotiations started tackling the emotional tension, through moving the distributive process forward. However, the tensions were further heightened by the looming pressures of the deadline that was evidently drawing closer, forcing both sides to retreat even further from the closer neutral ground they had almost reached, back to the hardliner positions (McKersie, et al., 2008:93). It is this retreat that made the final stages of the negotiations characterized by traditional bargaining, while the influence of the IBN bargaining process at this point was hard to be felt. Therefore, both bargaining...
3 Pages(750 words)Assignment

Face to face presentation on adult learning theory and research

...Face-To-Face Presentation on Adult Learning Theory and Research The Results of Your Audiences Evaluations The presentation provided on the concept of adult learning theory was effective as it enables the participant members to communicate effectively with others. For this reason, the effective use of both written as well as verbal communication was executed in order to make the presentation more effective. Further evaluation of the audiences’ response reveals the fact that the presentation through media was most effective as it facilitates better learning in comparison to other processes. The communication process between the presenter and the audience of adult learning...
1 Pages(250 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Face Negotiation Theory for FREE!

Contact Us