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Impact of work life imbalance on the productivity of workers in Saudi public sector - Essay Example

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Saudi Arabia is a nation on the Arabian Peninsula known for having 20% of the oil reserves in the world and being the largest producer of the oil (Khatib, 2012). Among the country’s 28 million inhabitants, 70% of the people work in the services sector including the public…
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Impact of work life imbalance on the productivity of workers in Saudi public sector
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INTRODUCTION Background information about Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia is a nation on the Arabian Peninsula known for having 20% of the oil reserves in the world and being the largest producer of the oil (Khatib, 2012). Among the country’s 28 million inhabitants, 70% of the people work in the services sector including the public sector. The remaining percentage of the nation’s workforce works in the non-oil services sector such as manufacturing industries and agriculture. Doing business and working in Saudi Arabia can be good because of the nation’s economic power for instance Saudi Arabia boasts of a GDP per capita of $711 billion (Berger, 2013). Based on recent labour surveys, about 14.9 % of the workforce in Saudi Arabia is in the public sector (Kechrid, 2012). According to the Saudi Arabia Oil and Gas Report by Business Monitor International (2009), the local workforce in Saudi includes of about 3.2 million citizens. However, recent demographic trends suggest that this number will increase in the future based on a forecast of 4% annual increase in local workforce.

It is clear that Saudi Arabian people value family more than work. The situation is even more pronounced for women since they have the greatest responsibilities in taking care of family needs. The gender imbalance in the labour force in Saudi Arabia is such that women make up less than 5% of the nation’s workforce (BusinessMonitorInternational, 2009). The ‘Saudization’ programme greatly affects the working context in Saudi. The program aims to increase the number of Saudi citizens working in the private sector by compelling companies to hire Saudi citizens rather than foreign workers.

The working context in Saudi Arabia is such that there is no industrial conflict as unions, strikes and other forms of collective bargaining are illegal.
In current society, organisational pressures force people to work long hours in order to achieve organisational goals. The high level of competition in the labour market forces workers to take on a higher workload than their optimal workload capacity (Greenhaus, 2011). This market effect can create an unwelcome imbalance between work and life.
Employee workload has many negative effects on physical and mental health, social life, and close interpersonal relationships of the workers experiencing work life imbalance (Greenhaus, 2011).
The culture of the people of Saudi Arabia places a high value on family in a person’s life. Therefore, work life imbalance is an important issue in the lives of workers in Saudi Arabia. Work-life imbalance refers to a situation whereby an individual fails to engage in a balanced way in family and work roles (Darcy, 2007). Work-life imbalance is a common problem among public sector workers in Saudi Arabia whereby many people become too involved in their work and consequently, their family and social lives suffer (Stephens, 2014). Because of inefficiency and poor implementation of working policies, productivity among workers in the public sector tends to be low (Malik et al., 2009) and many employees are likely to experience work life imbalance (Darcy, 2007). Work-life imbalance might affect both productivity and job satisfaction among workers (Darcy, 2007).
A study by Bloom and Van Reenan (2008) found that firms that gave employees the freedom to take care of family matters had increased productivity. These employees handled family matters through flexible working arrangements and working in shifts to get time for family. Other factors that might influence work life imbalance and thus productivity of workers in Saudi Arabia include cross-cultural issues (Harrison and Michailova, 2012).
This is possible because most workers especially in the private sector are foreigners and may have other cultural and family-related issues that dominate how they balance work and life.
Having an appropriate work-family balance can also positively affect job satisfaction among employees (Almalki et al., 2012). Satisfaction among workers can be a predictor of good performance and high productivity within an organisation. As Konrad and Mangel (2000) reveal in their study, firms that have programs to enhance work life balance among employees have higher chances of having higher employee performance and satisfaction. However, most of these programs are designed to help female employees balance work and family responsibilities.

The public sectors in many countries, including Saudi Arabia are more likely to have many challenges for example some workers may be reluctant to work with minimal supervision among workers hence low productivity, low efficiency in terms of service delivery and low rates of turnover (Almalki et al., 2012). Many researchers propose the importance of the work environment and certain management practices, such as ensuring a work life balance among employees in solving some of these challenges. For example, providing a quality work life and other good management practices such as allowing workers to handle family emergencies among other important matters, and flexible working hours can increase productivity of workers (Kechrid, 2012). There are many studies regarding work life imbalance and its impacts on the productivity of workers in Saudi Arabia (Siddiqui, 2013). However, most of these studies fail to provide any solutions to the problem of work life imbalance. The increasing economic development in Saudi Arabia may have effects on the nation’s workforce for instance gender composition in the workforce, the number of foreigners in the workforce and skilled labor among the workers (Deaver, 2013). As a result of this increase, work life imbalance issues may also increase among workers. Increase in the number of foreign workers may introduce other work-life imbalance issues especially those related to cultural differences among the foreign workers. A change in gender composition for instance an increase in the number of women in the workforce may mean that work-life imbalance issues might increase given the magnitude of family responsibilities among women particularly in Saudi Arabia.
As Almalki et al. (2012) argue, more than 60% of people in Saudi Arabia report that they value family more than work. For Saudi Arabians, family needs usually supercede work requirements to the extent that many workers are willing not to go to work in order to attend to family matters. The fact that people value family in Saudi Arabia means that work life imbalance is a central problem that is affecting these people. Almalki et al. (2012) also found that Saudi workers consider absenteeism from work as a legitimate behavior in the workplace. Rates of absenteeism were also high in Saudi in relation to other countries for example 2.3% in USA, 3.7% in Canada, and 5.4% in Saudi Arabia (Almalki, 2012). Therefore, because of the importance of family and the obligation to put family needs first among Saudi Arabians, most workers find it difficult to create a balance between work and life. Work-life imbalance among workers in Saudi may affect their productivity at work and also result in work life conflicts.

This thesis explores how work life imbalance affects the productivity of public sector workers in Saudi Arabia. It also discusses how work life imbalance affects their quality of life. Finally, this research will provide possible solutions and measures that can help reduce work life imbalance among public sector workers in Saudi Arabia.
Chapter 3
Findings and Discussions
Nineteen participants were available for the semi-structured interviews. The interviews identified the effects of work life imbalance on the productivity of workers in the Saudi Arabian public sector by exploring the personal experiences of the participants, their feelings about work life imbalance and possible solutions to the problem of work life imbalance. The study identified four main themes from the responses of the participants: work life balance, quality of life at home, productivity of the workers and solutions to work life imbalance issues. Each theme was broken down into smaller categories as illustrated in this chapter.
3.1 Work life balance
The study focused on how workers in the public sector balanced work and life. Collection of this data used open-ended questions that enquired into the personal experiences of the workers.
3.1.1 Work life pressures
According to the study, about 53% of respondents reported having work life pressures: “There is a lot of pressure especially when it comes to balancing home and work” (R1), “sometimes I experience pressure when I have urgent family matters at home but the same time have some work to complete at my workplace.” (R12) while the remaining 47% reported not to experience work life pressures: “I don’t have pressures because I don’t mix work and family” (R14), “there is no pressure because at home I try to be a parent while at work I do my job” (R8). Eight out of nine women who participated experienced work life pressures while the only five out of eight women who participated experienced work life pressures. According to Khan and Agha (2013), work life pressures were higher among women in Saudi Arabia due to the fact that they are expected to take more family roles than men. There is significant debate around the idea that women are supposed to take up mothering roles, household responsibilities and taking care of children while men should working and ensuring that they handle financial aspects of the family. However, both men and women may adopt the concept of work life balance in their lives. The result of this debate is that many organisations are adopting the concept of work life balance because women are gaining top managerial positions and these organisations need to stay top of the market (Khan and Agha, 2013).
Work family pressures experienced among workers who participated in this study could be an interesting area to conduct further research concerning work life balance related issues. Research by Parasuraman and Greenhaus (2002), reported that particular segments of the workforce experience different work life pressures. However, that study lacked enough evidence to support most of its arguments. To explain this, Parasuraman (2002) suggested that new groups of workers with different work life pressures include single mothers and fathers, single employees with extended families and grandparents raising their grandchildren. Work life imbalances can create stress among employees. Whether the stress is from home or work, it can be detrimental to the health and general productivity of the employees.
According to Stephens (2014), stress at work can spill-over and result in stress at home or vice versa. Therefore, it is prudent to create a balance between work and life, in the long run reduce pressures, and stress among the employees.
The majority of the respondents, approximately 58%, that is thirteen out of nineteen participants reported that they achieved a balance between work and life: “We have to break up work from other life duty and we have also to forget works problem as we leave the organisation door” (R2), “Well, that could happen through organizing your daily timetable and divide it between working hours, relax and family time”(R19), “It could be through determination to prioritize work on one hand and life requirements on the other hand.”(R9) Even though majority of the respondents reported ultimately achieving a balance between work and life some reported having difficulties in doing it: “In my opinion, work-life balance depends on daily and weekly working hours. The more working hours, the difficult work-life balance” (R18), “It is too hard to me to describe whether my life and work are perfectly balanced.”(R16)

Figure 1: Presence of Work Life Balance in Current Job
One way of increasing work life balance is to allow workers to make their own flexible work arrangements. Al-Rajuzi, (2012) reported that flexible work arrangements are some of the common methods used by workers to create a balance between work and family. Workers who balance work and family reduced work-family conflicts than those who lacked such arrangements (Al-Rajudi, 2012).
Workers who fail to balance work and family roles may find themselves in work-family conflicts. These conflicts arise when a person’s work contribution creates problems at home or vice versa when contribution at home creates problems at work (Aslam, et al., 2011). Work family conflicts are not good for the development of the organisation or the individual workers because it results in psychological disturbances among the employees. To avoid such conflicts and their subsequent effects it is important for workers to create a balance between work and family conflicts. Every worker has to find a way to balance between working and his or her private lives. Eby et al., (2005) argue that to avoid work life conflicts a person should balance their private and work lives.
The effects of such an imbalance can be positive or negative depending on which side of the workers’ life dominates the other. There arises a situation where conflicts between family roles and work roles are minimal (Clark, 2000). The situation is a good work life balance because the worker is satisfied and works nicely. This study is among other previous studies that have focused on family and personal- related situations among employees (Sturges and Guest, 2004). It is important that majority of the respondents in this study try to develop work life balance in their lives: “I think workers should give the work enough time by come and leave in time in order to make the balance between both.”(R3)
3.1.2 Number of hours worked and overtime
About 42% of the respondents worked between both 21-30 and 31-40 hours per week. In terms of working overtime 52% of the participants reported that they sometimes worked overtime while 42% admitted that they frequently worked overtime hours. Most of the workers in this study worked long hours since most accomplished their normal work with extra job hours and overtime. The number of hours worked can have impacts on work life imbalance. Most research reveals that the time workers spend at their work can have negative effects on their lives particularly when it comes to balancing work and life (Greenhaus, 2001). The more hours of work, a worker engages in at the workplace means that the individual will have less time for other life and family events. It is worth noting at this points that the more time an individual spent at work may result to work-life imbalance and thus work-family conflicts (Greenhaus, 2001).
A study by Albertsen et al., (2008), found that a higher number of working hours was associated with less balance between work and life among employees. The same study also found that overtime work resulted in less balance between work and life among employees. This results support findings from our study that suggests that many workers in the public sector work many hours. As such, these workers might have less time to take care of family matters or for that matter balance between work and life. However, this study did not evaluate the exact effect of long working hours and overtime on the workers’ families.
Figure 2: Number of Hours Worked per week
Most women in this study worked an average of 31-40 hours a week while majority of men work an average of 21-30 hours a week. A study by Bahkali (2010), noted that the women in Saudi Arabia work no more than 35 hours a week. According to Bahkali (2010), the biggest issue for Saudi women workers is around lunch time. Lunch time for Saudi families is generally from 1-3 pm and is considered to be ‘family time’. This is a very challenging because women are expected to be with their families during this time, but this is not possible if they are in full-time employment. A balance between work and family is an important issue especially for Saudi Arabia women because they have to balance between their culture and family. Work life balance in terms of balancing the number of working hours helps Saudi workers to have enough time to take care of other family matters and responsibilities.
3.1.3 Taking work home
Majority of the respondents did not take their work at home as shown in the figure below. About 78% of the participants differentiated work and life by not taking their work at home: “I don’t believe in taking work home. Works have to be in suitable place” (R3), “No. because as the work need to be done in a particular time and place. However, if I have more work to do, I would ask my manager to work overtime. It looks nicer than take the work home.”(R5) A small percentage of the workers, about 15% reported that they at times finished their jobs from home.
Figure 3: Taking work at home
3.2 Quality of life at home
The quality of life may be affected by work life imbalance among employees. When employees lack the balance between work and life, they may not be in a position to have a quality life as well. Quality life means an individual is comfortable both at work and at home. At work, the individual must complete tasks and responsibilities on time and do quality work. However, while at home, the same individual develops a strong social life with friends, family, and other responsibilities. A quality of life means that the worker has a stable social life in terms of relationships with friends and family. The social life of about 80% of the respondents was affected by work life imbalance: “Sure, my social life is affected. This is through scarcity of communication” (R13), “Yes. Sometimes I feel that” (R10), “That impact would be like shortage of communication between the small families. Moreover, with friends and other family members the person will have communication problems” (R1), “Yes. It could assist to affect the relation with friends and family especially for those people who usually good in the social life.” (R11) Even though the quality of life of majority of the respondents was affected by work-life imbalance some were less affected, approximately 15%: “Employees should know their responsibilities in order to avoid such problems happen. For example, that worker spend more in the work could guide to start the problem. Some employees note that and try to manage the time between work and home” (R17), “In order to finish a huge amount of workload, it is good to get extra hours and finish the work. The extra hours can only be found when working from home.” (R6)
Figure 4: Impact of Work life Imbalance on social Life (friends and family)
The findings from this study show that work life imbalance has effects on the social lives of the workers and this agrees with findings from other similar studies for instance (Lowe, 2005; Aycan, et al., 2009). Work life imbalance affects the social lives of workers because the organisation wants the workers to perform while at the same time, there are family responsibilities and duties waiting these workers at home. Workers who cannot sustain a balance between work and life probably find themselves in social problems with friends, family, and other relationships. Impacts of work-life imbalance on the social lives of workers include its effects on their families such as lower family satisfaction, lack of participation in family roles, relationship problems with children, friends and the social life (Lowe, 2005).
Zare et al., (2012) conducted a study on quality of work, its definitions, and dimensions. They found out that quality of work life includes work life balance such as fair working hours, social factors such as family and friends and other factors such as economic and job content factors. According to Malik et al. (2009), there exists a relationship between quality life, job satisfaction among employees and work life balance. A higher quality of life means that the employees will end up satisfied with their jobs and thus will performs better in the duties at work (Saba and Iqbal, 2013).
Therefore, in order to attain a quality life at home, it is also important for workers to create a balance between work and family responsibilities. Respondents in this study reported a lack of quality life because of the work-life imbalance that consequently affected their relationships with family and friends.

3.2.1 Impact of work life imbalance on workers ability to leave job
The study assessed impact of work life imbalance on the ability of workers to quit job. About 63% percent of the respondents agreed that work life imbalance could cause them to leave their jobs for other alternatives in life. The remaining 36% of the respondents were not ready to leave their jobs because of work life pressures.
Figure 5: Does Imbalance make one feel like leaving a job?
The presence of work life imbalance can result in employees especially in Saudi Arabia to leave their jobs and attend to matters at home. As shown in the study majority of workers were willing to quit their jobs because of lack of the balance between family and work. This might be because for these people, family is a very important aspect of life. According to Almaki et al., (2012), family was the most important thing in the lives of most Saudi Arabia people. Results from this study regarding leaving job agrees with the findings of Almaki et al., (2012), that for Saudi people, family needs supercede work requirements. Most of these workers are willing to stay at home and attend to family matters instead of reporting to work. Lack of work life balance can be a possible pressure causing workers to want quit their jobs.
3.3 Productivity of the workers
The study assessed the impact of work life imbalance on the productivity of workers by looking at effects of work life imbalance on general productivity and effects on personal level of the workers. About 78% of the respondents agreed that work life imbalance has effects on productivity of workers: “Yes. In my opinion, if the employees make the balance between work and home, there will be more productive and optimism. Because there will not be any problem” (R19), “It could affect the productivity from different aspects. From example when I have an appointment for my daughter or son, it means that I probably come to work late as a result will finish later. Other way of affect is the sleeping hours, when you do not have enough sleep due to some commitment that would affect you” (R3), “Yes, I think the two are all connected” (R10), “Yes, I feel that myself when I make the balance. The more I adopted the balance the more productivity I provide. Besides that, balance could assist to be more focused in your work and home at the same time.” (R5)Though majority of the workers agreed that work-life imbalance affected their productivity, about 21% felt otherwise: “No. if I could manage my time at work and home, they will not be any problems in relation to work-life balance” (R12), “I don’t think so. Because of the arrangement which is a fundamental part in individual life. However, if there is not any organize, that would impact.” (R2)
To understand the effects of work life imbalance on the productivity of workers, the study assessed effects of the imbalance on individual basis in terms of its influence on individual productivity. About 73% of the participants agreed that the presence of work life imbalance resulted in a decrease in their personal productivity: “The more motivation from employee side the more chance to be more effective and this could reflect in to employee life” (R15), “Absolutely, work sometimes requires more effort to be done and that could affect your personal life.” (R11) In addition, work requires more training and development which could impact your life. However, 26% of the respondents felt that work-life balance did not affect their productivity: “I do not see any influence because I have made the balance” (R4), “That would take more time in work without any benefit.” (R14)
Figure 6: Impact of work life imbalance on productivity of people
Figure 7: Impact of work life imbalance in personal productivity
Work life imbalance affects the productivity of workers at both group and individual levels. The balance between work and life can enhance or reduce the productivity of workers. Most respondents agreed that lack of balance between their lives and work decreased their productivity at work. A review of evidence on management practices, work life balance, and productivity of workers by Bloom and Van Reenen, (2008) found that lack of work life balance resulted in a decrease in the productivity of workers especially those working in firms that lacked measures to allow workers to take care of family matters. These results are also supported by a study by Kechrid (2012), who found out that good management practices such as facilitating work life balance for employees increased productivity of Saudi Arabian firms that had such practices.
3.4 Solutions to work life issues
One of the objectives of this study is to find measures that can help balance work life among employees in the public sector. To answer meet this objective, the study structured some of its questions to get the response on possible solutions from the participants.
3.4.1 Organisation to be responsible for work life imbalance
One of the solutions raised by the respondents for solving the work life imbalance was related to the role of organisations and employers in ensuring that there is a balance between life and work for the employees. A large number of the respondents 78% felt that the organisation should be responsible for creating a balance for workers in terms of their life and work: “Yes. Organisations have to contribute to organize a healthy environment which helps employees to be engaged” (R1), “I think so. They could decrease the amount of work through different ways. For example, they could increase the number of workers or even provide a temporary employee to help you.” (R10)
A small percentage of 21% felt that the responsibility for creating a balance between work and life does not rest on the organisation but that the individual worker also has a role to play. “To be honest, its both part responsibility; organisations and employees” (R19), “I think, sometimes organisations have to solve this problem. However, employees have to know how to make the balance in order to be good example in work and home.” (R13)

3.4.2 Solving work life imbalance problems
The respondents gave different views and opinions on possible solutions to the problem of work life imbalance among Saudi workers most of which are summarised in the forthcoming tables. Flexible working hours and training employee on time management were among the most frequent opinions from the respondents. Other possible solutions are summarized in the table 1.
Table 1: General comments regarding solutions to work-life balance problems
Frequency
Percent
Flexible Working hours for employees
7
37
Time management and prioritizing responsibility
1
5
Facilitate manager employee relationship
2
10
Enhance workers welfare
1
5
Organisations should balance work and life of employees
1
5
Training employees
5
26
Increase employee numbers
1
5
working in Shifts
1
5
Total
19
100.0
Some of the recommendations presented by Albertsen et al. (2008) are similar to those found in this study. Because long working hours and overtime are associated with work life imbalance, it is essential for organisations to create a balance between work and life. According to Albertsen et al., (2008), organisations and workers should reduce long working hours, working more than the required amounts and non-standard hours at work in order to develop work life balance.
Flexible working hours is one of the widely used methods to maintain work life imbalance (Aycan, et al., 2007). For example, workers who have flexible working hours can set a system where they finish a certain amount of work within a certain period per week. After finishing this amount of fixed work, these workers have time to spend on other personal interests.
Bijleveld et al., (2000), also offer some possible solutions to the problem of work life imbalance among employees. Some of the alternatives suggested include: career breaks, flexible working arrangements and family friendly employment policies that can help employees maintain the balance between work and life issues. Despite the fact that organisations need to create work life balance among employees, it is important to note that they should do this while at the same time consider the employment opportunities for the worker. According to Ahmad (2013), it is the responsibility of employers and organisations to offer their employees alternative employment opportunities that will help reduce work-life imbalance. However, they should do this is a manner that will not damage the potential career development of the employees.
3.4.3 Other recommendations
The respondents also offered other recommendations that could offer more possible solutions to the problem of work life imbalance among employees in the Saudi public sector. A summary of the other possible solutions and recommendations to the problem of work life imbalance as per the respondents of this study is presented in the following table 2.
Table 1: Additional recommendations to solving work-life balance problems
Frequency
Percent
Organisation should focus on the problem
7
37
Increase the use of technology
3
16
Flexible holidays
1
5
Increase rewards e.g. salaries and wages
1
5
Training programs on time management
3
16
develop more employee rights laws
2
10
No comment
2
10
Total
19
100.0
The review by Albertsen et al., (2008), found that part-time work enhanced work life balance for employees especially women. Therefore, they recommended that an increase in the opportunities for part-time workers. The researchers argue that part-time work results in a more satisfactory work life, family life and private life. The findings from this study emphasize on the role of the organisation in creating work life balance for workers. As Erdem and Karakose (2008), point out, organisations can be very effective in creating work life imbalance among employees if the right measures are implementated. The job can create a work life imbalance because it is demanding in terms of time, effort, and mental capacity of the workers. To increase organisational efficiency, most firms offer better opportunities and allow their employees to work more in order to earn the benefits. Therefore, In the long run, such workers end up neglecting their private life for the sake of organisational efficiency. From this explanation, this study emphasizes on the importance of organisational change in solving work life imbalance issues.
Organisations can also set supportive programs for family life issues of the employees that can create a balance between work and life (Lockwood, 2003). Such programs can encourage employees by supporting their attendance and can lead to increased work efficiency and productivity. The fact that the organisation is ready to support their family and friends shows the workers that the organisation cares about other responsibilities of their workers other than at work. Supportive programs increases productivity since it creates work life balance and develops job satisfaction among employees.
Employee motivation is an important factor that can create work life balance among employees. According to Siddiqui (2013), most employees and workers in Saudi Arabia consider motivation as an important factor that can create work life balance. When motivated these workers will take care of their families and at the same time be ready to work efficiently. Siddiqui (2013) offered some of the approaches to achieve motivation among employees in Saudi Arabia. These include giving rewards and credits. Motivation can help employees offer their best at work. When coupled with management practices such as flexible working arrangements can push employees towards balancing work and family responsibilities instead of depends on one side. Workers can also get bonuses and other incentives either yearly or every half-year. Organisation can also conduct training programs and workshops to teach employees on time management and balancing between their work and family responsibilities and duties. Motivation would probably act to reduce work life balance issues among the employees. Ferris (2009) classifies work life conflicts to include role-overload and interference of family in work routines. Therefore, there is a need for intervention whenever employment demands and family households clash and create an imbalance in the life of an employee.
3.5 Conclusion
This chapter elaborated the findings from this study regarding work life imbalance and productivity of workers. Majority of the participants in the study were female. Majority of the male participants 56% experienced work life pressures while the only 44% of the women experienced work life pressures. These results disagree with other studies that noted higher work life pressures among women because they were expected to take more family roles than men did. Majority of the respondents, approximately 57% accepted that they balanced between work and life. This study is among other previous studies that have focused on family and personal- related situations among employees and the importance of balancing between work and life among workers in the public sector. About 42% of the respondents worked between both 21-30 and 31-40 hours weekly. This was standard working time for Saudi Arabia workers. The social life of about 84% of the respondents was affected by work life imbalance while 10% was not affected. The effect on social lives indicated that being of work life imbalance had negative effects on these workers in terms of its effect on family, friends, and their relationships.
The findings from this study show that work life imbalance has effects on the social lives of the workers that agree with findings from other similar studies. The work life imbalance can result in employees especially in Saudi Arabia to leave their jobs and attend to matters at home as shown by the number of workers ready to leave their jobs.
Work life imbalance affects the productivity of workers at both group and individual levels. The balance between work and life can enhance or reduce the productivity of workers as shown in this study whereby most respondents agreed that lack of balance between their lives and work decreased their productivity at work
This study offers some suggestions to reduce work life imbalance among Saudi public sector employees. The most important solution is for organisations to create a balance between work and life by reducing long working hours, overwork and non-standard hours at work in order to develop work life balance.
Flexible working hours can also help create a balance between work and life. Other alternatives suggested include career breaks, flexible working arrangements and family friendly employment policies that can help employees maintain the balance between work and life issues. Part-time work can also enhance work life balance for employees. Finally, this study emphasizes on the importance of organisational change in solving work life imbalance issues. Supportive family programs and employee motivation can create a balance between work and life.
The lack of adequate information regarding the groups of individuals with potentially difficult and different work life pressures is an interesting gap and area for future work life balance research. Read More
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...of specific phases need to be incorporated, as indicated in Figure 3 below. Figure 3 – Project life cycle (Hosein 2003, p.4) Comparison with similar projects of the public sector Compared to the public sector’s programs, the training program suggested for the organization would have the following advantage: it would be easier for each employee to talk to the firm’s owner. In public sector, politicians have the role of CEO of large organizations. In the private sector it is easier to visit the firm’s CEO and discuss on all critical employment issues (Marieta, Opreana & Pompiliu, 2010, p.133). Also, in...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Work People and Productivity

...Work People and Productivity Affiliation The culture of an organization is very reliably especially in a case where several people from the same organization take a predefined test. An individual’s profile would show his or her assessment regarding the preferred and the current culture in the organization. Two people from a similar section can have different profiles if they have been assessed differently on certain characteristics as seem in this paper. The first step in the process is to make observations and analyze one’s profile. This involves identifying the current culture as well as the preferred culture. In such a case, the candidates need to ask themselves if they do recognize their profile. It is good to come... is with that of...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Work, people, productivity

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9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

Work, People and Productivity

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2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Impact of work life imbalance on the productivity of workers in Saudi public sector

...the obstacles. In addition, I would note the name of Dr. Christine Cross who is my course leader. With his supervision and assistance, I was able to develop a broader vision to develop my understanding. Also, I would like to thank my parents and family who supported me throughout my working period. Finally, friends who have been there to stay motivated and perform well even under pressure. Participation information sheet Name: ______________________________________________ Subject: _____________________________________________ It is to invite you to participate in the study that is conducted to determine the impacts of work life imbalance on the...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Public Productivity

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2 Pages(500 words)Essay
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