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History and Political Science: Socialism - Essay Example

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In the essay “History and Political Science: Socialism” the author focuses on a number of political, social, and socio-economic theories that claim to be the format for the ideal government. In truth, each has positives and negatives, advantages and disadvantages…
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History and Political Science: Socialism
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Due History and Political Science: Socialism There are a number of political, social, and socio-economictheories that claim to be the format for the ideal government. In truth each have positives and negatives, advantages and disadvantages. One such political approach is Socialism, which first originated in the French Revolution, but did not become a formally acknowledged until after the publishing of the “Communist Manifesto,” in 1848, written by Karl Marx. Communism in its simplest form believes in a fall of the socio-economic classes, leading to all control being given to the government, and then the government would answer to a specific political party or singular dictator, like Adolf Hitler in Germany in the mid-20th century. Socialism is often perceived, by many, as the softest form of Communism. It is a political, social, and economic structure that advocates “collectiveness,” which grants the means of production and distribution of goods into the hands of the government and out of the hands of companies and individuals; essentially eliminating “private” property all together.
Libertarianism and Conservativism were the two most common and widely embraced political and governmental ideologies throughout large parts of Europe in the 19th century. However, towards the latter part of the 19th century the socialist ideology first became more popular. No doubt a direct reaction to the Capitalist ideology that was ideal for the upper class, but was far less beneficial for the working class and the poor, made Socialism so attractive. Karl Marx wrote the “Communist Manifesto,” detailing his vision of the ideal society; he believed that could never be achieved through Capitalism. Capitalism is like a pyramid it is really only going to be beneficial for those at the apex, never those at the foundational base.
Karl Marx (1818-1883) was a German born philosopher and thinker. He became a journalist and harsh political critic with strong opinions, many of which were rather controversial. His socialist and budding communist views would ultimately get him literally exiled from both France and Germany. He would eventually spend his exile in London, England, where he would ultimately remain until his death at the age of 65. He believed that the class struggle would never end and the gap between them would only widen. He believed that Capitalism was, in fact, a kind of “dictatorship of the bourgeoisies.” Eventually their irreconcilable differences would result in the fall of Capitalism and then the people would implement Socialism. However, Marx did not believe that Socialism would continue in the long term. He firmly believed that Socialism was just a transitory phase between Communism and Capitalism. The society would eventually evolve out of Socialism and establish true Communism.
There are a lot of economically disadvantaged people in the world, across the globe and here in the United States. Reforms need to be made to improve that situation. However, that does not necessarily mean that Socialism is the ideal replacement for Capitalism. In the end, there are no perfect, utopian, solutions that will lead to a perfect society. We are a diverse world with varying philosophies and ideas. One type of government may be successful and beneficial in some parts of the world and in others not at all. However, given the modern perspectives on personal property, private property, and security of individual identity it does not seem likely that any majority is willing to let the government take over completely; if anything many today are calling for the opposite, far less government involvement and control. Read More
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