While Roosevelt's administration implemented a variety of programs that were designed to stop the economic turmoil in 1933, many of his later programs were more ideologically based and had a greater impact on society's future…
Download file to see previous pages...
While Roosevelt's administration implemented a variety of programs that were designed to stop the economic turmoil in 1933, many of his later programs were more ideologically based and had a greater impact on society's future.The New Deal has often been viewed as one of the most dramatic set of programs ever to restructure the American political landscape. The initial programs that were created to alleviate the suffering of poverty were largely temporary and were disbanded after their purpose had been served. The Civil Works Administration, which found jobs for over 4 million people, was shut down in the spring of 1934 but was replaced by more important programs such as the Works Progress Administration and Public Works Administration (Garraty 909). The Second New Deal beginning in 1935 created more ideologically based programs that were long lasting and continue to impact American life.Many of Roosevelt's New Deal programs were slow to develop. Roosevelt's first term was marked by a rejection of the more radical ideas and programs that were later put forth in his second term (Kirkendall 848). The concept of the minimum wage law was a direct result of legislation passed in the New Deal era under Roosevelt. The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1935 contained a minimum wage provision that was opposed by industry and the labor unions, yet Roosevelt was able to move it through Congress (Manza 311). As late as 1937, Roosevelt's administration was still drafting bills that would increase the minimum wage by as much as 30% over the existing market rate (Jensen 572). The ideology of a minimum wage was contrary to traditional American capitalism and was passed by the Roosevelt administration, not for political expediency, but for a sociological belief that everyone was entitled to a minimum level of subsistence.
The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 was a broad shift in power away from the industrialists and into the hands of the unions and more importantly the workers, which were viewed as socialist instruments. Though many seen this Act as merely a way to stem the rising tide of strikes, it was only one of several alternatives that the administration considered (Skocpol, Finegold, and Goldfield 1299). The fact that Roosevelt took this unpopular and difficult stance is evidence that it was ideologically based. Goldfield writes that, "Pluralists made a significant advance over the old conservative elite theories by stressing the importance of societal influence on the political process" (Skocpol, Finegold, and Goldield 1312). These were not the short-term remedies for the economy; these were lasting effects on the philosophy of government.
The Social Security and welfare policies of Roosevelt's second term strengthen the argument that his programs were heavily influenced by ideology. Roosevelt has been criticized as "The most openly socialist leader ever to occupy the White House, and his policies reflected a firm belief that government should control business and redistribute wealth" (Snyder). The Social Security Act was the most important piece of legislation that defined this ideological purpose of government. The Act established unemployment insurance, old age insurance, and the Aid to Dependent Children program. It would form the backbone of a limited welfare state that has continued to grow. The political ramifications are still a center of debate. Manza contends that, "...the Social Security Act and the Wagner Act resulted directly from the pressures brought to bear on state managers by New Deal era social movements" (300). These were programs that were implemented not for their political and economic popularity, but rather due to the groundswell of support by ideologically driven social reformists. The shift in power away from the laissez faire industrialists of the early 20th century and toward the concept of the greater good was a redefinition of government's role in society
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
The new deal is arguably one of many things that brought back the United States from the Great Depression; although the New Deal failed to end the economic Depression, the approach was successful in restoring confidence from the public and generating new programs which brought relief to Americans and delivered America from the Great Depression.
These reforms were produced in order to counter the Great Depression experienced by US during the period of 1929 to 1939. Body The purpose of the First New Deal was to consolidate and save the institutions that were already functional in US; this deal came into being because the president believed in the Keynesian theory which stated that government spending should increase while a country is experiencing hardships.
Some of these policies fell under the New Deal which was challenged for not being effective. As a result of this, Franklin Roosevelt came up with a number of new policies that came to be known as the Second New Deal and various issues as pertains to the new deal will be the focus of discussion in this paper.
During this time, President Roosevelt did support every plan suggested by his advisors, and in turn, congress supported the programs projected by the president. The new deal aimed at achieving three targets, relief, recovery and reform. Relief programs aimed at lessening the suffering experienced by the American people.
There is no denying the fact that President Roosevelt lost no time in fulfilling his promise of the New Deal, once he got elected. New Deal primarily signified a series of reforms initiated by President Franklin D Roosevelt aimed at ameliorating the diabolical impact of the Great Depression on the American economy.
Although Collier could not win congressional backing for his most radical proposals, the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 dramatically changed policy by allowing tribal self-government and consolidating individual land allotments back into tribal hands. Collier set out his vision for what became known as the "Indian New Deal" in this 1934 article from the Literary Digest.
It represented a significant shift in both the political and domestic policy of the US, with results such as increased federal government control over the money supply and the economy as a whole (Chandler 1970). The New Deal was based on the three R's: relief for the unemployed, recovery for the economy, and reform to prevent another depression (Ashby 2005, p.
The Government formed programs to help alleviate a country suffering from severe economic depression following the stock market crash of 1929 and was not principally concerned from which ideological faction the ideas originated. President Roosevelt (FDR) along
very was of the economy to recover to ordinary levels; and Reform of the financial system not to recur another depression (Henretta, Brody, Fernlund and Benjamin p187).
The New Deal caused political repositioning in the United States. It made the Democratic Party a majority