The Rise of a Successful Turkish National Movement - Essay Example

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The author states that the Turkish National movement was able to transform Turkey due to their commitment under the strong leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk since he was a reformer. They were able to establish new reforms, hence known as one of the successful movements in the world.   …
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The Rise of a Successful Turkish National Movement
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 The Rise of a Successful Turkish National Movement
Turkish National Movement was an organization, which was aimed at liberating Turkish people from oppression. Its main objective was to eliminate status quo imposed by the western countries and establish new reforms from social, political, judicial, educational, and cultural. It was led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk who was an indeterminate, 1881–10 November 1938, a Turkish army officer, revolutionary political leader, and Turkeys’ first President. He was a popular Ottoman commander since during World War 1; Ataturk remained undefeated in battles.
Ottoman Empire was formed around the 14th century. According to Shaw, during that period, the Empire gained first control over one of its conquered land known as the Anatolian peninsula. The Ottoman Empire was recognized as one of the successful and powerful state in the world due to a chain of reasons including military tactic and the collapse of the Byzantium Empire.
Nevertheless, during the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire succumbed to war. This strong nation was overpowered and reduced to be the land of Turkey. The Empire signed Armistice of Mudros on October 30, 1918 to call off the war, due to the fear of losing everything. Their decision had repercussions since the empire lost control over its Middle Eastern territories to France and Britain under the Sevres treaty. After the downfall of the empire, the Turks began the Turkish national movement, led by Mustafa Kemal since other countries came up with their new territories. This was a result of the occupations of Izmir and Istanbul along with the invading Greek, French, and British. They declined to acknowledge the government in Istanbul and the invading forces. The movement also came up with a people’s army, defending the empire from intruders like the Greeks, French, and Italian.
Atatürk led the Turkish national movement in the Turkish War of Independence. He tactically defeated the forces sent by the allies since he had established a strong provisional government in Ankara, which was loyal to him. His planned military campaigns liberated his country to emerge as an independent state. As an aficionada of age of Enlightenment, he transformed the former Ottoman Empire into a democratic, modern, and secular state. The principles of Ataturk’s reforms that led to the establishment of Turkey are known as Kemalism.
During his presidency, Atatürk embarked upon a program of political, economic, and cultural reforms. The following political reforms were later established: Abolishment of the Sultanate (1 November 1922), Declaration of the Republic (29 October 1923) and the abolishment of Caliphate (3 March 1924). Social reforms focused on gender mainstreaming (1926-1934), the revolution of headgear and Outfit (25 November 1925). Juridical Reforms focused on the abolishment of the Canon Law (1924-1937). It also looked into educational and cultural Reforms, integration of education (3 March 1924), adoption of the new Turkish alphabet (1 November 1928), and organization of the university education (31 May 1933).
Turkish National movement was able to transform Turkey due their commitment under the strong leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk since he was a reformer. They were able to liberate themselves and establish new reforms, which catered for their needs from all dimensions, hence known as one of the successful movements in the world.
Works Cited
Shaw, Stanford J and Shaw, Ezel K. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Volume 2, Reform, Revolution, and Republic: The Rise of Modern Turkey 1808-1975 | Paperback| Published May 27, 1977 | ISBN-10: 0521291666 | ISBN-13: 978-0521291668 | Edition: First Edition. Web. April 19, 2013> Read More
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