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Such measures include the diplomatic agreements and military actions. National and international securities are interlinked, in which international security represents national security in a global arena. The study on international security emerged after the end of the World War II, and since then, international security study has been incorporated in studies on international relations. Security is considered as a common sense term understood only through unacknowledged consensus. Over the years, content on international security has developed to include the conventional or traditional modes of the military power, economic strength, the war consequences between nations, religious and ideological conflicts, the energy supplies, human security, science and technology and stability of states against environmental degradation among others (Buzan & Lene 2007, p.89).
The global security comprises of five dimensions, which are interrelated. The multi-dimensional structure of global security comprise of human, national, transnational, environmental and trans-cultural security. The global security cannot be obtained without good governance at every level.
Human security guarantees the human dignity for the global security. This protects individuals from inequality, humiliation and the double standards. The environmental security protects and enhances the environmental concerns. The national security entails global justice and the national capabilities in promoting peace. The transnational security protects against threats to transnational and multilateral cooperation for natural and man-made disasters. The trans-cultural security protects the different cultural groups against discrimination and humiliation by avoiding stereotyping through media, entertainment industry, and educational materials. The apparent differences in norms, value systems and ideals should be modified in such a way
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Social constructivism brings in a social ‘zest’ to theory of international relation. This research paper considers social constructivism as a perfect alternative for neorealist theory widely applied for international relations. Materialist theory analyzes behavior of states on the basis of material assets distribution.
This is because of the international conventions and regulations that bind various nations and spell out some accepted codes of existence.In most cases,when these codes are broken,leading to all kinds of humanitarian crisis in individual countries,the resultant consequence has been for the international world to intervene
Hacking attacks from the Middle East severely disrupted the United States and European banking transactions during the latter half of 2012, leading the United States and other powers to understand that cyber criminals and cyber threats were a very real and prescient concern that could no longer be ignored.
As such, strong militaries, strategy, and war define the struggle to stay relevant and powerful. Neorealism promotes an understanding of the fact that structural constraints force nations or states to act in a specific way. Shifts in the way in which global political economics was formulated took place in the early 1970s as OPEC countries decided to cut production of oil as a means of raising prices.
As such, the imperatives of identifying the componential elements of national and global security, on the one hand, and of attaining a more accurate understanding of state behaviour on the global level, on the other, are incontrovertible. It is in response to the articulated imperatives, international relations scholars have forwarded theoretical paradigms designed to both interpret and identify threats to global security and the motivators of state behaviour within the international arena.
This controversy is termed as the “structure-agency debate” which has been defined as “the disagreement as to whether human behaviour is determined and constrained by normed social structures” or is the result of an individual’s characterisitcs and will
le around the world who go about their daily schedule without thinking too much about this issue despite it being talked about so much in the media, I was also oblivious of this fact. I was however highly shocked when I did the carbon footprint personal assessment online and