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Such accidents occur in systems that incorporate many complex interconnections, stringent performance conditions, and many components. Such systems pose a problem of determining and foreseeing failures that might occur (Malloch and O’Grady, 2009:123). Perrow considers a set of considerations named DEPOSE that presents unexpected contingencies and unforeseen complications. These considerations are design limitation, procedural errors, operator errors, procedural errors, equipment failures, and variable in the environment unknown.
Systems prone to normal accidents are identifiable by their complex interaction and components coupling relationship. The interaction of components in a system across the DEPOSE elements may either be complex or linear. In linear interactions, an expected sequence of events in the causal pathways is present (Pierre, Hofinger, Buerschaper and Simon, 2011:284). Even in the circumstances that unplanned or unexpected events occur, they are identified easily by how they cause the system to deviate from normal functioning. Complex interactions often occur in unexpected, unplanned, and unfamiliar sequences. The flaws, failures, or problems in complex interactions are not visible and not easy to comprehend as they occur. This results from the multiple elements in the DEPOSE interacting to cause unpredicted outcomes (Sellnow, Ulmer, Seeger and Littlefield, 2009:163). The main source of complexity in complex interactivity is common-mode functioning. This is the concept where one element discharges multiple tasks. Besides complex interactions, coupling between the system and the DEPOSE elements also cause accidents (Lounsbury and Hirsh, 2010:224). Tightly coupled systems do not have a slack or buffer, thus the effect of one component is transferred to the elements connected to it. This results in domino effect or chain reaction. Loosely coupled systems allow
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