We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Nobody downloaded yet

The Islamic Conquests - Essay Example

Comments (0)
Summary
The sudden explosion of the Islamic Empire out of Arabia in the Seventh century has been of interest to scholars since the beginning of modern historiography (Gibon VI, 282-363). There are two possible categories of explanation for the phenomenal success of the Islamic expansion out of Arabia in the seventh and eighth centuries…
Download full paper
GRAB THE BEST PAPER
The Islamic Conquests
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
The Islamic Conquests

Download file to see previous pages... In Empire to Commonwealth (12-19), historian Garth Fowden has delineated three separate geographical, cultural, and political spheres in Eurasia: China, India, and the Near East (the Fertile Crescent and the adjacent Mediterranean coast). These areas were all ancient centers of civilization and because of the distances and geographical barriers involved, had little interaction with each other. This is why China, India, and the Near East/Mediterranean can be thought of as continuous discrete civilizations even though throughout much of their history they lacked the political unity to provide full national identity.
Although Islam eventually spread to all three areas, it origin and center lay in the Near East and it was only there that it became fully dominant. The Near East is unique among the three in having close interaction with a wide variety of surrounding areas. The Fertile Crescent is "a vortex that pulls inward and fuses what lies around it. So not only can the Fertile Crescent never enjoy long-term autonomy, but its unity can only be realized on a secure bases as part of a wider unification of the Iranian Plateau with the Mediterranean" (Fowden, 18). This unity was only achieved twice, in the first instance by the Achaemenid Empire (Alexander's fleeting unification of an even larger territory was based on Achaemenid Iran) in the sixth to fourth centuries BC, and in the seventh century by the Umayyad Caliphate. The initial Arab conquests unified the entire Fertile Crescent region with Iran for the first time in centuries, providing a secure economic, political, and geographical base for further conquests, for instance by allowing the Islamic state to compete on an even footing with the Byzantine navy (Fowden, 140). It may well be that the impetus to sustain large scale conquests into the eighth century came from the Islamic practice of providing for the army from the income of conquered lands collectively, rather than distributing the lands. This tended to keep the army in being (Karsh, 24).
How did the initial Arab conquest succeed so well The Arabs' opponents in the area, the Byzantine and Sassanian Empires, were exhausted after a generation of fruitless war with each other over the Fertile Crescent and were in internal states of near collapse. In Iran, ultimately the loosing party in this conflict, on which the pressure was increased by Turkish invasions from the north (Christian, 260-285), the aftermath of defeat had led to assassination, civil war, and by 633 a state of anarchy in the empire (Nafziger and Walton, 18). Rome was also riven with internal dissensions (see below). So, to a large degree from a military perspective, the rapid Arab conquest of the Iranian state and of nearly half the territory of the Byzantine state, is to be attributed to the internal weakness of the defeated Empires rather to any special qualities of Islam.
Other possible purely military factors to explain the Islamic conquests have been proposed, though with less plausibility. In Islam at War, Nafziger and Walton suggest a 'great man' solution to the problem of the Arab conquest, arguing that Khalid ibn al Waleed was "one of the great [sic] natural military leaders in all of human history" (16-17). But this hardly seems plausible. However remarkable Khalid's successes were on an operation level, and as astounding as his victories were, the were (as above) due more to the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
The Origins of Islamic Culture
The purpose of this research paper will be to discuss the history of Islam; Islam and culture; the main principles of the Islamic law; Islamic finance and banking; Islamic finance variations and investments; Islamic education; Islamic architecture; Islamic clothing; Islamic literature; the Mosque; Islamic art and calligraphy.
15 Pages(3750 words)Essay
Byzantine and Islamic systems
Byzantine and Islamic systems. The Byzantine and Islamic systems pose a challenge in the attempt to classify them as either unique or adaptations of previous systems, considering that both systems applied a combination of both previous adaptations and unique elements that they had devised for themselves.
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
History of islamic
The Holy Writings of Islam is The Quran where the sacred text of Allah’s revelation to Prophet Muhammad’s was written to be taught to Muslims. Islam is a monotheistic religion that believes in true God who is Allah. There are two divisions with the tradition of Islam which are the Sunni and Shi’a which claims different methods of exercising religious authority.
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay
The Spread of Religion
Was religion a force of peace and stability or of discord during the era? Actually, it was both. For the people in Western Europe, the Christian position on peace and rule of law did provide a measure of stability for society. As the church institutionalized, it also provided a model for administrative efficiency.
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Islamic Studies
Hadith, in the Islamic religion, consist of the collected traditions, teachings, and stories of the prophet Mohammed, accepted as the source of Islamic doctrine and law. Hadith, in the Islamic religion, are considered second only to the Koran, which is believed to be the Almighty Allah's own words.
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
Islamic History
Inland, the only possible location for development of any sort of state was in the impoverished and remote region dominated by Mecca and the Quraysh clan, where ancient pilgrimage centers protected markets in perfume, leather, and other trade goods.
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
Islamic architecture
Whether in a mosque, a madrasah, or a residence, Islamic architecture has as its goal to both reflect and even to reveal the presence of God to the human
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay
Quiz 1
The discontent between the non-observant and non-orthodox factions in the regime seemed to be a common and enduring experience in the society. Government officials in Constantinople disregarded the entire leadership mandated to administer different parts
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
To what extent was religion behind the successes of the great Arab conquests of the seventh and eighth centuries
In other words, was the inclusion of the Islamic faith a central component to why the Arab led invasions of the vast swaths of territory
13 Pages(3250 words)Essay
Roman and Mongol Conquests
Similarly, the Roman Empire grew from a small city-state to become a great Empire occupying most of southern and western Europe. It stretched Near East and northern parts of Africa (Livy, 1905). The expansion of these two civilizations was spurred by the rise of
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Let us find you another Essay on topic The Islamic Conquests for FREE!
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us