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History of islamic - Essay Example

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Name Teacher Class Date History of Islam Islam is a religion that originated in Mecca and Medina in the 7th century C.E. Islam was founded by Prophet Muhammad as an expression of his surrender to Allah. Such, Islam as a word meant to surrender or to submit to Allah…
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Download file to see previous pages There are five fundamental practices of Islam required among the Muslims, the followers and believers of Islam. These are the profession of Islamic faith, prayer, charity or zakat, fasting and hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca (of which Muslims are encouraged to make one pilgrim to Mecca at least once in their lifetime). Muslims are known for their devotion to Allah for they commit to pray five times a day and they gather is Mosque to worship Allah. Origin of Islam The followers of Islam believe that Islam already existed since the time of Adam. it is believed however by non-Muslims to have originated in Mecca and Medina through Prophet Muhammad. Islam expanded to the world in the 7th century and transformed nomadic people in desert into major players of world civilization and Prophet Muhammad was at the helm of that transformation. Prior to advent of Islam in the 7th century, Arab people lived on the Arabian Plate on the south of Hedjaz as nomads which Prophet Muhammad belonged. Prophet Muhammad began receiving revelations about The Holy Quran in 610 beginning when he was forty years old. Thus, Muhammad’s death in 632 was a major blow to the then nascent Islamic community. The Muslims however responded to this challenge by establishing the institution of Caliphate that would ensure the perpetuity of historical Islam (Ahmed). After the death of Prophet Muhammad, his friend Abu Bakr who was the first adult who embraced Islam became the first caliph. He was succeeded by Umar after two years who became caliph for a decade. During Umar’s caliphate, Islam burst extensive from east to west conquering Persian empire, Syria and Egypt and importantly the capture of Jerusalem ( After Umar’s caliphate, Uthman succeeded him and assumed the caliphate for 12 years. Islam continued to expand during this time and was the one who was responsible for distributing the definitive text of the Holy Quran to reach all the realms of Islamic world. Ali then followed him who was known for his literary genius as well as his bravery in battle. Ali’s death marked the end of the rule of the “rightly guided” caliphs that started with Abu Bakr, then with Umar and finally with Ali. After the rule of the rightly guided caliphate, the Umayyad caliphate followed suit in 661 and was to rule the Islamic world for a century. During this time, the capital of Islam was moved from Medina to Damascus. Islamic conquest continued to expand during this time extending from western borders of China to western France. It also included North Africa, Spain Sind and Transoxiana in the East. During this time also, the foundation of the social and legal institutions of Islam were established ( The Umayads were succeeded by the Abbasids and again moved the capital of Islam to Baghdad. During this time, Islam was in its Renaissance as it became the center of learning and culture. It became as the center of the civilization of the world during that time as old texts of scholars such as Aristotle, Plato, Euclid and other thinkers were translated into Arabic to be studied extensively. The Abbasids caliphate lasted for more than 500 years until their power eventually faded and reduced to figurative heads because military power were then held by sultans and princes. When the Mongol ruler Hulagu captured Baghdad in 1258, the Abbasid caliphate finally ended as well as the great city of Baghdad together with ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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